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THE EXPERIENCE OF FIP INDUSTRIALE IN THE RETROFIT OF BRIDGES TROUGH SEISMIC ISOLATION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION - CASTELLANO, COLATO, and INFANTI

THE EXPERIENCE OF FIP INDUSTRIALE IN THE RETROFIT OF BRIDGES TROUGH SEISMIC ISOLATION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION - CASTELLANO, COLATO, and INFANTI

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Published by Matteo Izzi

The retrofit of existing bridges and viaducts often represents a challenge to engineers because of the constraints imposed by existing geometry and materials. Seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices can be a powerful tool in the hands of engineers to retrofit bridges with a favorable cost-benefit ratio. In Italy, the use of seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices for retrofit purposes started in 1986. Since then, FIP Industriale has produced thousands of seismic devices of different types to retrofit bridges and viaducts - not only in Italy but in other countries as well.

The retrofit of existing bridges and viaducts often represents a challenge to engineers because of the constraints imposed by existing geometry and materials. Seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices can be a powerful tool in the hands of engineers to retrofit bridges with a favorable cost-benefit ratio. In Italy, the use of seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices for retrofit purposes started in 1986. Since then, FIP Industriale has produced thousands of seismic devices of different types to retrofit bridges and viaducts - not only in Italy but in other countries as well.

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Published by: Matteo Izzi on Jan 20, 2013
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06/21/2014

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Buletinul AGIR nr. 1-2/2009
aprilie-septembrie
266
THE EXPERIENCE OF FIP INDUSTRIALEIN THE RETROFIT OF BRIDGES TROUGHSEISMIC ISOLATION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION
Maria Gabriella CASTELLANO,
R & D Department, FIP Industriale S.p.A., Italy
Samuele INFANTI,
R & D Department, FIP Industriale S.p.A., Italy
Gian Paolo COLATO,
 
Technical Department, FIP Industriale S.p.A., Italy
REZUMAT. Reabilitarea podurilor
ş
i viaductelor existente constituie o provocare pentru ingineri, datorit
ă
constrângerilor impuse degeometria
ş
i materialele existente. Dispozitivele de izolare seismic
ă
 
ş
i de disipare energetic
ă
pot fi utilizate cu succes de c
ă
treingineri, ob
ţ
inându-se raporturi cost-beneficiu favorabile. Folosirea acestora pentru reabilitare a început în Italia în 1986
ş
i, deatunci, FIP Industriale a produs mii de astfel de dispozitive pentru a reabilita poduri
ş
i viaducte – nu numai în Italia, ci
ş
i în alte
ţă
ri.Cuvinte cheie:
pod, viaduct, reabilitare, izolare seismic
ă
, disiparea energiei.
 ABSTRACT. The retrofit of existing bridges and viaducts often represents a challenge to engineers because of the constraintsimposed by existing geometry and materials. Seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices can be a powerful tool in the hands ofengineers to retrofit bridges with a favorable cost-benefit ratio. In Italy, the use of seismic isolation and energy dissipation devicesfor retrofit purposes started in 1986. Since then, FIP Industriale has produced thousands of seismic devices of different types toretrofit bridges and viaducts - not only in Italy but in other countries as well.Keywords:
bridge, viaduct, retrofiting, seismic isolation, energy dissipation.
1. INTRODUCTION
For the last three decades, seismic isolation and passive energy dissipation technologies have undergonegreat development, finding many applications in bothnew and existing conventional bridges as well as major structures like suspended and cable-stayed bridges. Arecent example in Europe is the Rion-Antirion cable-stayed bridge in Greece, where the largest fluid viscousdampers ever built were applied to control thetransverse movement of the bridge deck during strongearthquakes [Infanti et al, 2003 a; Infanti et al., 2003 b].The use of seismic isolation and energy dissipationdevices in the seismic retrofit of bridges started veryearly – in the 1980s – due to the relative ease in sub-stituting bridge bearings with seismic isolators [Skinner et al., 1993]. This paper summarizes the experience of FIP Industriale in bridge retrofits using seismic isolationand energy dissipation devices.
2. ITALIAN SEISMIC ISOLATION SYSTEMSFOR BRIDGES
Seismic isolation and energy dissipation devices have been used in Italy since the seventies for the seismic protection of different structures, and in particular bridgesand viaducts. Hence, Italy soon became the countrywith the largest number of seismically isolated bridges(over 150 bridges and over 100 km of seismicallyisolated bridges by 1992 [Skinner et al, 1993]). Sincethe late eighties, Italian seismic devices have been appliedin other countries too – ranging from European andMediterranean seismic-prone countries to Bangladesh, theUSA to Azerbaijan, and South-America to South Korea.The isolation systems developed in Italy for use in bridges were those offering large amounts of energydissipation through strong non-linear behavior. In effect,in the overall evaluation of a bridge seismic protection,the main goal is to reduce seismic forces as well as deck movements, providing a solution to the need to minimizeexpansion joints and bearings' stroke and resulting coststhereof. Thus, in order to reduce both stroke and force, asolution has been found in high damping devices (morethan 30% of equivalent viscous damping) and in parti-cular, strongly non-linear devices such as steel hystereticdampers (alone or combined with sliding bearings insingle units), based on the yielding of metals, exhibitingan elastic-plastic behavior that can limit the forcestransmitted to piers (Figure 1), or non-linear viscousdampers. More detailed description of both these typesof devices is given in the following paragraphs.Elastomeric isolators, both utilizing high dampingcompound or lead cores, are also used in Italy as well as
 
RETROFIT OF BRIDGES TROUGH SEISMIC ISOLATION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION
Buletinul AGIR nr. 2-3/2009
aprilie-septembrie
267
other countries. However, their use in bridges andviaducts is usually limited to those cases where the deck comprises many beams, i.e. the vertical load on each bearing is not that great and the site seismicity level isnot very high.
-75-60-45-30-1501530456075
Deformazione [mm]
-150-120-90-60-300306090120150
Carico[kN]
-300-200-1000100200300-150-100-50050100150
Displacement [mm]
   F  o  r  c  e   [   k   N   ]
 Fig. 1.
Typical force vs displacement experimental curve of tapered pin shaped (left) and crescent moon shaped (right) steel hystereticdampers.
Other types of seismic devices have also been usedin Italy [Castellano & Infanti, 2005].
2.1. Steel hysteretic dampers
These devices are constructed using metallic elementsof various shapes made of high ductility steel. For themost part, they are based on flexural yielding. Eventhough the first steel hysteretic dampers in the worldwere used in the South Rangitikei viaduct, in NewZealand [Skinner et al, 1993], the country in which theyhave found the widest development and application isItaly.Amongst the many different shapes of steel hystereticdissipating elements developed by FIP Industriale, themost widely used are (Figure 2): 1) crescent moonelements; 2) tapered pin or double-tapered pin elements;3) X-shaped or butterfly elements (similar to the ADASelements applied in USA mainly within braces inframed buildings, while in Italy they are usually appliedat abutments in bridges).
Fig. 2.
Tapered pin (left) and crescent moon (right) elementsunder testing.
Once the shape of the element and its correct sizeare selected according to design displacement, the steeldissipating elements are so arranged as to achieve therequired function (uni-directional or multi-directional)depending on where they are to be installed. The requiredmaximum force, elastic and post-elastic stiffness of asteel hysteretic damper are obtained by setting the proper number of dissipating elements working in parallel. This provides the advantage of redundancy:i.e., any defect in one or more elements does not put aseismic device out of service.Steel hysteretic dampers in bridges are usuallycombined with sliding bearings to create a seismicisolation system. This combination is often used in asingle device or isolator, comprising (Figure 3): 1) afree-sliding (or uni-directional, if so required by the bearing system) PTFE bearing (pot, spherical or elastomeric) that serves to transmit vertical loads andallow rotations and horizontal movements; 2) a seriesof steel dissipating elements to control horizontal actionsand dissipate energy (these elements are arranged aroundthe bearing to ease inspection). A large amount of experimental data on the behaviour of isolators of thistype can be found in [HITEC Ed., 1998].When necessary, shock transmission units (STUs)are also combined with steel hysteretic dampers to
 
MANAGEMENT CALITATE-MEDIU
Buletinul AGIR nr. 2-3/2009
aprilie-septembrie
268
handle significant thermal movements. STUs areinserted between the moving portion of the structureand the steel dissipating elements, in series with thelatter. The resulting devices allow slow movements under service conditions without activating the dissipatingelements, while under earthquake excitations the STUslock, transmitting the force to the steel dissipatingelements.
Fig. 3.
Sketches of a sliding isolator with crescent moon (left) and tapered pin (right)dissipating elements.
Sometimes, sacrificial restrainers are also used. Theseare designed to resist service loads and fail during adesign earthquake, thus allowing the steel hystereticdampers to work properly [Castellano et al., 2001].The aforesaid combination of steel hysteretic dampersand sliding bearings has become known as “the Italianapproach to seismic isolation” because it was developed by Italian manufacturers of seismic devices and wasapplied in hundreds of bridges - first in Italy and thenall over the world, since the 1980s.Intrinsically, crescent moon steel hysteretic elementsexhibit uni-directional behavior (Figure 2 right), but can be arranged in different ways to create dampers withmultidirectional behavior. An outstanding applicationof this type of dampers to retrofit bridges is the one inthe approaches of the Granville Bridge in Vancouver,Canada, where 157 dampers were installed both inlongitudinal and transverse directions, with horizontalforces ranging from 130 to 220 kN and designdisplacements of 
±
152 mm. Isolators with this type of steel hysteretic elements were also used in the retrofit of an offshore oil platform [Infanti et al. 1997]Tapered pin steel hysteretic dissipating elements can be of two types: single, i.e. a cantilever type element(Figure 2 left) or double, equivalent to two single pinsin series. Their main advantage resides in their intrinsic multi-directional behavior (in the horizontal direction,of course). Shaking table tests have been carried out ona full-scale tapered pin element to fully validate itsseismic behaviour [Castellano et al., 2001]. A mainexample of application of double tapered pin steelhysteretic dampers is the Bangabandhu (Jamuna) Bridgein Bangladesh [Castellano and Cestarollo, 1999].Isolators equipped with double tapered pin typeelements were used in the retrofit of the MarquamBridge, Oregon – USA (see chapter 8 below). Morethan 1100 isolators with tapered pin elements have beenrecently installed in the new viaducts of the Caracas-Tuy Medio Railway [Pérez et al., 2001 a , Pérez et al.,2001 b].
2.2. Fluid Viscous Dampers
Fluid viscous dampers are axial devices whose forceis proportional to velocity, whether linear or not. Thehydraulic circuit connecting the two chambers in whichthe cylinder is divided by a piston head, as well as thefluid and the geometric design of the dampers, aredifferent depending on the manufacturer [Soong &Dargush, 1997]. The hydraulic circuit usually consistsof orifices in the piston head or relief valves.Consequently, the force vs. velocity relationship
 F =
⋅ 
v
α
of fluid viscous dampers also varies with themanufacturer, the exponent
α
usually ranging from 0.1to 1. In the last few years, viscous dampers manu-factured by FIP Industriale have undergone major testing programs [Boeing Ed., 2000; Infanti & Castellano,2001; Benzoni & Seible, 2002; Infanti et al., 2003 b]which entitled the company to be entered in the Pre-qualified Damper Manufacturers List for the GoldenGate Bridge Retrofit project as well as to enter theCALTRANS (California Department of Transportation)List of Pre-qualified Damper Manufacturers. FIP’s lastgeneration of fluid viscous dampers have orifices in the piston head, and commonly have an exponent
α
 
0.15(Figure 4, left). Thus, their reaction is almost constantwithin a wide velocity range. This permits the devicesto already initiate damping reaction at low velocities.Said effect maximizes the reduction of displacementsowing to the high efficiency of the hysteretic loop(Figure 4, right). In other words, a device characterized bya larger 
α
exponent at an equal level of maximumload transmitted to the structure permits greater displacement.

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