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P. 1
The Usefulness of Exposure Control Countermeasures in Reducing Radiation Fatalities

The Usefulness of Exposure Control Countermeasures in Reducing Radiation Fatalities

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Published by rlnac
Final Report
Prepared for Office of Civil Defense
June 1967
Final Report
Prepared for Office of Civil Defense
June 1967

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Published by: rlnac on Jan 20, 2013
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03/11/2013

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URS
664-5
THE
UtsJMqfIESS
OF
EXPOSURE
CONTROL
-G(OUTEIWEASURES
IN
REDUCING
RADIATION
FTALITIES
T
Final
Report
(-q
June
1967
Prepared
for
J
OFFICE
OF
CIVIL
DEFENSE
Department
of-
the
Army
Washington,
D.C.20310
I
Contract
No.
N228(62479)70307
Work
Unit3221Bthrough
the
Technical
ManagementOffice
U.S.
NAVAL
RADIOLOGICAL
DEFENSE
LABORATORYSan Francisco,
California94135
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his
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URS
664-5
THE
USEFULNESS
OF
EXPOSURE
CONTROL
COUNTERMEASURES
IN,
REDUCING
RADIATION
FATALITIES
Final
Report
June
1967
by
Carl
R.
FogetAnn Willson
William
H.
Van
Horn
Prepared
for
OFFICE
OF
CIVIL
DEFENSE
Department
of
the
Army
Washington,D.C.
20310
ContractNo. N228(62479)70307WorkUnit
3221B
through
the
TechnicalManagement
OfficeU.S.
NAVAL
RADIOLOGICALDEFENSELABORATORYSan Francisco,California
94135
Approved
by:
M. B
Hawkins-
ManagerRadiationTechnologyDepartment
This
report
has
been
reviewed
in theOffice
of
Civil
Defense
and
approved
for
publication.Approval
does
not
signifythat
thecontents necessari:yreflectthe
views
and
policies
of
the
Office
of
Civil
Defense.
"This
document
has
beenapproved
for
publicrelease
andsale;its
distribution
is
unlimited."
 
U
n
8
664-5
ABSTRACT
An
investigation of the lifesaving potential
of
exposure control
counter-
=s
measures
(applied
shielding,
groupshielding, shelter rotation, limited decon-tamination,
overcrowding,
and movement)
under
specific radiological environments
is
the
subject
of this report. Scenarios
were
developed
to
depict
"real"
post-
attack situations
with
radiologicalfalloutlevels suitable
for
evaluation
of
*
exposurecontrolcountermeasures.
These
scenarios,
all
for
the city-of
San
Jose,
California,
include
two shelterlocationsand two vitalfacilities(the EBS
radio
station and
a
food
warehouse) which
are assumed
to
have
sus-
tained
light blast
effects and fallout.
An
analysis was
performed
of the
lifesaving capabilities
of
each individualcountermeasure and
a
combinationof various countermeasuresfor each shelter location. The sensitivity
of
each
countermeasure
to
informationalinputswas
also
studied
as
vas
the
useof the
countermeasures
in
promoting
the early restoration
of vital facil-
-
i-ties.
It
was
concluded
that
the exposure
control
countermeasures
that
wereinvestigated
all
show
some
degree
of
lifesaving capability. Group shielding,overcrowding,andappliedshielding were found
to
be
themost effectivecountermeasures.
Limited
decontamination, shelter rotation, and remedialmovement proved
to
'be-the
least
effective countermeasures. Various
combi-
nations
of
exposure
control
countermeasures displayed
an
additive effective-ness and have
an
excellent capability
for
reducing fatalities.
Finally,
it
was concluded
that
exposure
control
countermeasures, knowledgeably usedeither singly
or
in
combination
in a
high radiation field,arecapable
of
savingmany
lives that
would otherwise
be lost.
It is
recommended, therefore,
that the
use
of
exposure
control
countermeasures
be
investigated further,particularly
in
the
application
to
communities
where
large
shelter deficitsare known
to
exist, such
as
thesuburbanor bedroom communities
that
surroundmost large
metropolitan
areas.
Also,
consideration should be
given
to
in-
corporatingexposure
control
countermeasures
into the
communityshelter
plan
program.
? iii

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