Watershed Vol. 11 No. 1 July – October 2005
urma, re-named Myanmar bythe country’s ruling militarygenerals after a 1988 coup, isa place where some of the world’s worst social,political, and economicproblems converge: au-thoritarianism, system-atic human rights viola-tions, environmental de-struction, civil war andcomplicated ethnic poli-tics, severe poverty andpoor public health, lack of education, and others.These problems andtheir various ill effectsare often viewed withinthe context of the mili-tary dictatorship that is largely respon-sible for them, but the people of Burmahave more to fear than the repressivemilitary government ruling over them.They must also fear its partners.Major multinational companiesand regional governments are poisedto invest in Burma, and Burma makesit easy for them to do so. Currently, aninternational consortium comprisingprivate and state-owned companiesfrom South Korea and India are nego-tiating with Burma’s military govern-ment around the Shwe gas project, alarge-scale gas development projectunfolding in western Burma. Thisproject will most likely result in the con-struction of a gas pipeline which willcarry natural gas from the Bay of Ben-gal, through Arakan and Chin Statesin Burma, and through Bangladesh forconsumption in India. This interna-tionally financed pipeline project willbe doubly devastating for the peopleof Burma, especially those of Arakanand Chin States. Firstly, the projectthreatens the basic human rights of those in affected regions: the
(military) will almost cer-tainly forcibly relocate entire villages,use local forced labour on the pipe-line and its supporting infrastructure,and introduce violence such as rape,torture, and murder to local communi-ties.
Secondly, in as much as the Shweproject is potentially the largest sourceof revenue for the military governmentof Burma, it poses a long-term threatto those living under Burma’s militaryrule, to say nothing of the threat thatcontinued military rule poses to re-gional peace and security.
Moreover,the Shwe gas project stands to causesevere environmental degradation anddestruction, upsettingvital and fragile ecosys-tems, threatening manyspecies unique to theregion, and contaminat-ing local waters. Forthese reasons and oth-ers the Shwe gasproject must stop imme-diately.Situated betweengiants India and China,Burma is a geo-politicalhotbed where naturalresources, in this caseconflict resources,abound. Since 1988 total foreign in-vestment in Burma is estimated atUS$7.646 billion. Of that amount theoil and natural gas sectors are Bur-ma’s largest area of foreign investment,accounting for US$2.494 billion since1988, or roughly 33 per cent of all for-eign investment since 1988.
Thisamount is on a sharp rise due largelyto market demands caused by the un-precedented industrial growth of In-dia, China, and Thailand over recentyears.The military junta’s demonstratedinterest is in continued rule, and con-tinued rule requires continued rev-enue, so by default the junta’s primaryinterest is in generating more directforeign investment, at any cost. Just
The proposed Shwe gas pipeline and Blocks A-1 and A-3 To me I don’t think the pipeline will be a benefit.The people will suffer more because of this.It already happened and I think it will continue.
Local trader in Arakan State, Burma,commenting on the proposed Shwe gas pipeline.