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Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation

Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation

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Fish as a source of animal protein has played an important role in the nutritional budgeting of many nations. Fish production is becoming a very important source of valuable protein food. Fishmeal is the major protein source in aquaculture feeds.
Fish as a source of animal protein has played an important role in the nutritional budgeting of many nations. Fish production is becoming a very important source of valuable protein food. Fishmeal is the major protein source in aquaculture feeds.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Jan 21, 2013
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08/28/2013

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 January | February 2013Chicken viscera or fsh eed ormulation
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
INCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy
 
F
ishasasourceofanimalproteinhasplayedanimportantroleinthenutritionalbudgetingofmanynations.Fishproductionisbecomingaveryimportantsourceofvaluableproteinfood.Fishmealisthemajorproteinsourceinaquaculturefeeds.
However,thesupplyoffishmealisnotgrowingworldwideandthepriceisoftenhigh,sothereplacementoffishmealwithcheaperproteinsourcesisneeded.Chickenvisceraareamongsuchproteinsourcesreplacingfish-meal.Visceraarethelargeorgansinsidethebody:suchastheheart,lungsandstomach.Researchfindingshasrevealedthatcertainchickenvisceralorganssuchasheartcontainover80percentproteinofexcellentqualitywhiletraditionalfishmealnormallycontain60 –80percenthighqualityprotein.
Fishmeal
Fishmealisthemostimportantcomponentinfishfeedformulation.Itisacommercialproductmadefromfishandthebonesandoffalfromprocessedfish.Itisabrownpow-derorcakeobtainedbydryingthefishorfishtrimmings,oftenaftercooking,andthengrindingit.Ifitisafattyfishitisalsopressed toextractmostofthefishoil.Fishmealisanutrient-richandhighproteinsupplementfeedingredientthatstoreswell,andisusedprimarilyindietsfordomesticanimalsandsometimesasahigh-qualityorganicfertilizer.Fishmealandfishoilreplacementhasbeenthefocusofverysignificantresearcheffortsandhun-dredsofscientificpapersinrecentyears.Despiteyearsofresearch,fishmealandfishoilremainveryimportant,quasiessen- tial,componentsofsuccessfulcommercialfeedsformostfishandcrustaceanspecies.Thisgenerallyhasanimpactonthefeedandproductioncostsformanyaquacultureproducts.Overthepastfivedecades,dozensofdifferentproteinandlipidsourceshavebeenevaluatedinhundredsof‘practical’feeding trials.Manyofthesetrialsfocusedonreplac-ingfishmeal,fishoilorotherhighqualityproteinandlipidsourcesbyputativelymorecost-effectiveproteinandlipidsources.Whatisoftenoverlookedinmanytrialsisthatfishmealandfishoilarecomplexingredients thatareknowntovarygreatlyinchemicalcomposition.Therawmaterialsourcesandtypes,sea-sons,andprocessingequipmentandcondi- tionsusedinthemanufacturingoftheseingredientsallhavegreatimpactsonthechemicalcompositionandnutritivevalueof theseingredients.Incorporating‘20percentfishmealinthediet’or‘replacing50percentofthefishmealorfishoilofthediet’maymeanverydifferentthingsdependingonthe typeandchemicalcompositionofthefishmealandfishoilusedinthestudyandthefishmealandfishoillevelsinthecontroldietforsuchareason,thecompositionoftheingredientstobeusedforreplacingfishmealmustbedetermined.
Protein and aminoacids utilisation
Proteinistheprincipalconstituentofthe tissuesandorgansoffishbodyandthereforeanessentialnutrientforbothmaintenanceandgrowthinfish.Therequirementforproteinsinfishisthereforeveryobvioussinceproteinconstitutesmorethan45-47percentofthe tissuesdrymatter.Acontinualsupplyofpro- teinisneededthroughoutlifeformaintenanceandgrowth.Catfish,likeotheranimals,actuallydonothaveaproteinrequirement,buttheyrequireasourceofnon-specificnitrogenandindispensableaminoacids.Usually,themosteconomicalsourceof theseelementsisamixtureofproteinsinfeedstuffs.Ingestedproteinsarehydrolyzedtoreleaseaminoacidsthatmaybeusedforsyn- thesisoftissueproteinorifinexcess,usedforenergy.Useofproteinforenergyisexpensive, thuscatfishfeedshouldbebalancedtoassure thatadequatelevelsofnon-specificnitrogen,aminoacidsandnon-proteinenergyaresup-pliedinproperproportion.Itismoreprecisetoformulatefishfeedbasedonaminoacidrequirements.Nutritionally,aminoacidsmaybeclassifiedaseitherindispensable(essential)ordis-pensable(non-essentials).Anindispensableaminoacidisonethattheanimalcannotsynthesizeinquantities.Sufficientforbodyneeds,thustheymustbesuppliedinthe
Chicken viscera for fishfeed formulation
by M.G Imam, Bau Chi State University, Nigeria
 Table 1: Amino Acids Requirements o Catfsh
 mino acidsequirement (% of dietary protien) rginine 4.3Histidine 1.5Isoleucine 2.6ysine 5.1eucine 3.5Methionine+cystine 2.3Phenylalanine+tyrosine 5.0hreonine 2.0ryptophan 0.5 Valine 3.0
10 | IttIol
AquAFeed
| January-February 2013
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