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Francis DK Ching - Visual Dictionary 2

Francis DK Ching - Visual Dictionary 2

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08/17/2013

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HEAT
convection
..
~-----.---
------------
The
transfer
of
heat
Py
the
clrcuL-.tory
:r.otlon
of
the
~tea
parts
of
~
lk1ulcl
or
~3S
owl"9
to
~
varbtlon
In
density
3na
u,e
actlon
of
gmlty.
thetm.1lcc~
.---
------------. -----------1
The
t:lIM
I'3te
of
heat
flow
th
~h
.;!Unit
:
~ofa
~Iven
mterlaf
of
unit
thlci:ness
'
~
the
temperature
difference
across
the
thIcl:ness
Is
OM
un
It
of
temperatu
reo
tnerm.a'
ccMucbnce
TheUme
rate
of
hat
low
through
a
unit
~
of
J
given
rgtertal
when
the
~tlIre
difference
across
a
speclflecl
dllctnes5
of
the
materl311s
or.e
unit
of
t.empmtllre.
"'~:.=
--
-
-
------
-
-
--
.....
~~e~~
I
, f
tnermall7r~k
__
.
__
...
L_
....
---(---
..
-
..
--'-
.-.
Art
e!ement
of
ow
thermal
.
conductMty
pbce<l
In
..
n a
ssem~
tao
reduce
the
flow
of
heat
~etween
highly.
conductlve
In3
tula
Is.
Alsocallecl
tMrmal
pamer.118
co
nducti;,
n
The
ti.lnsfer
of
heat
from
the
warmer
to
the cooltr
partlcles
of
a
medium
or
of
two
!ladles
In
direct
contact,
occurring
without
perceptiDle
displacement
of
the
prtlcles
themselves.
-
--\
radbtion
_J
The
process
In
which
energy
In
the
form
of
l'I3ves
orparticles
Is
emitted
by
one
body,
p~~
through
an
Intervening
mecllum
or
space, and
a~sorrea
by
another
roay.
..•
thermal
re~i5tance
The
reclpl'OC3l
of
thermal
conaucta
nee,
expressed
as
thetemperature
difference
required
to
C3use
heat
to
flow
through
a
unit area
of
a
material
of
given
thldness
at
the
i.l~
of
one
~eat
unit
per
unit
time.
R-value
o
thermal
tr.ansmittance
The
time
i.lte
of
~
flow
through
..
unit
area
of
a
l7ulldlng
component
or
assem~1y
when
the
difference
lIetween
the
air
temperatures
on
the
two
sides
of
the
component
or
a
SS<:m
bly
Is
one
unit
of
temperature.
Also
called
coefflcJent
of
heat transfer.
;-··U-value
A
measure
of
thermal
reslstance
of
a
given
materl3/.
usedesp.
to
specify
the
performance
of
thennallnsulatlon.
The
~I
R-value
for
a
~ullcl1ng
componentor
assem~
Is
the
sum
of
the
R-values
for
eaGh
layer
In
the
component
or
assem~ly.
I/R(t0t3I)
=
U
, A
measure
of
the
thermal
transmittance
of
a
l7ulldlng
component
or
assembly, equal
tathe
reciprocal
of
the
total
R-value
of
the
component
or
assembly
---\=--
--~--~
-----
Infiltration ....
~
Theflow
of
outside
air
Inta
an
Interior
space
through
cracks
around
windows
and
doors
or
other
openings
In
the
envelope
of
a
building.
we3ther
strip
-.....
Astrip
of
metal.
felt.
vinyl.
orfoam
rubber.
placed
l:>etween
a
door
or
window
535"
and
Its
frame
to
provlJe
a
seal
against
wlna~lown
rain
ana
air
infiltration.
Also,
weather strippIng.
1
[
1
I
lJ
J
I
~
j~
I
j
I
oM
I
-
1-
 
.,
mineral
woel
Arry
of
YJrlous
~htwelght.1norg3nlG.
fi,rous
:n.;3~1s
used
esp. for
thermal
.aM
sound
Insolatlon.
35
glass
wool and
roct
1¥OC4.
gllss
wool
Spun
~lJss
fibers
resembling
weal
and
useJ
f:x
thenrul
:n5<JL.tlon
and
air
ftlws.
fi~ergll55
A
'r.3
ta\;l1
cons!stl
n.g
of
extremely
fine
ftl3marts
of
gbss.
WGVen
Intofabrlc.
ITUssed
for
use
35
a
hermal
;11'1.1
.awJ5tlcallnsubt.or.
or
em~
to
reirTforce
1fJn?us
lTtlterlals.
fi\;ltrgL1s
T
adcTtul:
for.a
~na
of
fibergl3ss.
rock
wool
MIMr.l1
wool
~
by
blowing
steam or
aIr
th~h
I1"oOI-ta1
slaq
or
rod:.
--.J
f03med
pllstic
fus:c,
3S
po~r~hJM
or
poiy5~T"eM.
~
rl.jht
and
cellular
by
tl-..e
lrrtroductlo!l
of
pockets
of
g3
s
or
atr
and
used
2$
thmT13llnsulatlon. Also
~rw
expanded
pUstlc.
pUstJc
fo<1m.
polyilrrlhal1e
fo.am
A
r.gtJexpanJed
~mh<lM
havlnq
a
closed-ull s
ru;tu
re
3
na
used
..
5
the~l:nsu~
mckW
polystyrene
A
-\g'J
polys~
f04m
hJVIng
an
open-cdl
stnJcture
.ina
used
35
~llnsu~
~~tyrene
A
~<J
po~
foam
h3Ving
J
closc:J-u1l
structure
ana
used
as
the~.;;;1
ir.su!4u.,
Styrofo<1m
T
~r\:
for
1I
bra
rJ
of
foamed
pl4
~~
rr.ao.e
from
polystyrene.
rc.am
gL1ss
Ulubrglass
Irt<Ide
b:ifoa~
~
....
~
gLJss
3rJ
moIdlnq
It
Into
Po.J
ras
or
blccis
for
~
35
thermal
insuLit.lon.
wood
wool
~
lOOOd
shavlf'.,Js.
u5U311y
of
pine
or
chem~11y
~tea
wood
fl~.
used
as
an
Insu
1a';j11.3
materIJl.
3S
a
Uinder
In
plaster.
41M
f:x
FJdl~
Al:so
called
exulslcr.
....
~
airway
The
pasS3geway
required
fer
the
~~Ii~
clrculatlon
ofair
petween
~tt
lnsul3tlon
and
roof
sheat.~lng.
lIatt
in~uLrtion
-....
.
Flexi~I.e.
fibrous
thermallnsulatlon
of
gbss
or
m!r.eralwool.
made
In
YJrIous
thlc~r~
ana
lengths
and
In
16·!n.
(406111111)
or
24-1n.
(610
mm)
widths
to
fit
~WI
studs. Joists.
ana
rafters!n
flght
wood
frame
constructlon.
scmetlrr.es
faced
with
a
vapor
marder
of
kr7ft
p3
per.
metal
fall.or
pl3stlc
sheet.
8m
nsulation
Is
also
as
a
compooent
In
souna-lnsul3tlng
constructlan.
Also
C31'ed
I1tanket
In
$uLrticn..
kraft
paper
_ ........ .
A
strong.
usualti
~rown
paper.
processed
from
wood
pulp
and
sized
with
resin.
rigid
~:ua
insut.rtion
_ .......
-._
......
_-_
..
A
p-refor.r-.ea.
nonstnJCturallnsulatlng
board
of
roamed
plastic
or
cellularglass.
Utular
gl3sslnsulatlon
Is
fire·
resl$t4lTt.
Impervious
to
mc!sture.
ana
dlrnenslcr;ally
sta~.
M
tt.s
a
ower
the-r.r.al-reslstance
value
than
foamed
pl3st~
ir6ulatlons.
whleh
.are
fummatr~
and
must
\1e
protecteJ
by
a
the~l
~rrIer
when
used
on
the
Inter'.x
5'Jrfaus
of
a
t>ulldl~.
~Id
In5U~
havl~
closed-cell
5
f'.JCi-IJl"!S,
as
extnJdtd
ro
ystyr!:r.e
and
cenl.itJ
r
gl3ss.
are
moisture·
resl5'"~rrt
arJ
may
~e
used
In
contact
with
the
earth.
foamea-in-pL1u iMul3tion
The~1
ir.sul3tlon
in
the
formofa
foarr~
p-I3stlc,
as
polyurethane.
th3t
Is
$j7¥
or
Injected
Irrtc a
cavtty
wh~
It
adheres
to
the
SUITOllnd1ng
surfaces.
Ioc~fitt
insulrtlon -_ ..........
__
........ .
The~f
lnsul3tlon
In
the
form
of
mlnml
I'rOOI
fJ\1ers.
granular vermlcuhte
or
~r!ite,
or
t:"eatea
cellubslc
fibers.
poured
~
handor
Plown
through
a
nozzle
irrto
a
c.avtty
or
r:Ner
a
suppcrtlr.g
memPT"aM.
r~ye
insul.ation
.-
.......... .
Ther.r
.
lnsul3tlon
In
the
form
of
a
materi;;lof
high
rt&ctlvlty
and
low
emlss.v1ty.
41S
paper-lr.lcked
aluminum
fOil
IX
fo~·b3Cked
gypsum
Poord.
used
In
corj"J~~lon
with
3
dead'air
space
to
reauu
tr.e
transfer
of
heat
by
rad;3:cn
deJd-.air
~pace
~.,
..
An
unvet1tiLJted
air
space
In
which
the air
~s
not
circulate.
H~AT
thermal
insulation
A
ITUterI3l providing
high
resistance
to
heat
flow.
as
mineraI
wool.
vermlcullte.
Or
foamed
plastic. fallrlc3ted
In
the
form
of
l1atts.
lIlanKets.
Poards.
or
loose
flll
weatherize
To
make
a
house
or
~ulk:l1ng
secure
against
cold
or
stormy
weather. asbyadding
thermallnsul3tlon
or
storm
wIndows.
or by seallngJoints.
....
fil7erl7oard
An
Insulating
l70ard
made
of
wood
or
cane
fJ~ers
compressed
and
cemented
Into
rIfIld
sheets.
used
as
an
Inexpensive
wan
finish or
as
celllng
tiles.
fil7erboard
sheathing
Insulating
fiPerVoara
treat:eaor
Impregnated
with
asphalt
for
w.t.er
resistance
and
used
primarily
for
she3thlng
light
wood
frame
walls.
emissivity
The
allJllty
of
a
surface
to
emit heat
by
radiation.
equal
to
the
ratlo
of
the
radiant
energy
emitted
to
that •
emltt:eaby
a
Ilack
Pody
at
the
S3me
temperature.
119
 
HEAT
tWnul
comfort'
HUlTI3n
ccmfort
as
~lned
Py
the
3PUlty
of
the
rody
to
dlsslpate thehe3t
and
moisture
It
produces
Py
meta
ronc
action.
effective
temperature
A
emptr3ture
representlng
the
comvined
meet
of
3m~nt
temperature,
relativehu,,,ldlty,
and
air
movement
on
the
5ef1satlon
of
warmth
or
cold
felt
Py
the
human
!my.
equivalent
to
the
dry-vulptemperature
of
still
air
at
50~
relative
humidity
whichInduces
an
identical
sensation.
_ -------.------------------'"wet-pulp
temperature
--~-..
The
temperature
rec.orded
Py
tM
'-,-
wet-!:>ull7
thermometer
In
a
.....
"
\
\\
\
"
\
psychrometer.
~\
dew
point
~ - - -
-------
--------
----
-
'y-'-
-
--
-
----
--------70\
--,':--~+---+
120
\.
- - - ~ ' - ' -
humidityratio
The
temperature
at
which
air
\.
\
vecomes
saturated
with
water
...
/-_+-l:-+-.p>-..""":'r+--r--t--\-+---i
The
ratio
of
the
/1'1355
of
water
vapor
to
the
mass
of
dry
air
In
a
mlxtu re
of
air a
nd
water
va
par.
Also
called
mixing
l7tJo.
vapor.
Also
called
tkw-polnt
\.
temperature. '
~~--~~+-~~~~~--~~~--~
comfortzane
~--.---.-----------.
-------_.
____________
---
------.------------
--
,,--
The
range
of
dry-!:>ull7
\
temprature.relatlve
humldity.
r--~-7"f--I;\-_+___:7r-::I'__<;:---"~~~
mean
radiant
temperature.
\
and
air
movement
judged to
be
comfortalXe
by
a
/l'l3Jority
of
Americ3ns
and
~nadlans
tesu.d.
This
comfort
zone
varies
wtth
cIllTI3te,
the
~SO!1
of
the
year,
the
~
of
clothing
worn,
and
the
activity
leve!
of
the
lMvidU3llJso
called
~
envdope.
psychrometli<:
ciurt
A
chart
~t!.'Ig~he
we'Hull:>
and
dry-PtiII7
readIngsfrom
a
psychrcrroe:ter
to
relative
humk:l1ty.
ai1solute
humla'"r;y.
and
dew
point_
~n
radilnt te1t1perrture
The
sum
of
the
temperatu
res
of
the
surrounding
W311s.
floor.
and
ceiling
of
a
room.
~hted
aoo>rdlng
to
the
solid
anglesu/7tende.d
by
each
at
the point
of
measurement.
Mean
radiant
temperature
Is
Important
to
thermal
comfort
since
the
hU/l'l3i1
body
receives
radiantheat
fromorloses heat
by
radiation
to
the
surrounding
surfaces
if
their
mean
radlant temperature
Is
s~n1flcantly
higher
or
lower
thantheair
temperature.
120
50
.'
~
.l
ary-l7ull1umperature
- " " ' ~ - ~ - - -
-------
The
tempe:-ature
recorded
by
the
dry-
Duf17
thermometer
In
a
psychrometer.
~ychrometer
An
instrument
for
measuring
at~herlc
humidity.
cor.slStlrog
of
two
thermometers. the
Pulp
of
one
I7elng
dry
and
the-j,ulll
of
the
other
belr.g
~pt
moist
and
ventllaW
so
that
the
cooling
that
results
from
Cia
poratlon
ITI3KeS
It
egister
a
ower
temperature
than the
dry
one,
with
the
difference
Petween
tM
'C3dlngs
I7elng
a
me3sure ofi'tll'1c5pher1c
humldlty.
radiant ht.at
--------------
---,
He3t
ener~
transmitted
Py
the radiation
,
of
~tromagnetlc
waves
In
contrast to
heat
transmitted
I7yconductton
or
convection.
70
90
relatNe
humidity
---------j
The
ratlo
of
the
alTlount
of
water
vapor
actuallypresent
In
the
air
to
the
maximli
m
amount
that
the
aIr
could
hold
at
the
same
temperature.
expressed
as
a
percentaqe_
AUl7r.:m
.1b-50lute
humidity
The
mass
of
water
va
par
present
In
a
un
It
volume
of
air.
'pecific
humidity
The
ratloofthe
ITI3SS
ofW3ter
vapor
In
air
tothetcbl
masscfthe mlxtureofalrand
water
vapor.
hygrometer
Any
ofvariouslnstrurnents
for
measuring
the
humidity
of
the
atmosphere.
:--enthalpy: A
measu
re
of
the
total
he;;
t
co~lned
In
a
su\7st3~
eqtl4l/
to
the
1nterTt31
en~~
of
the
suDsi:.ance
plus
the
product
of
Its
volume
and
pressure.
The
errtha
Ipy
of
air
Is
equal
to the
sensible
he3toftM ak
and
the
water
vapor
present
In
the
air
plus
the
latent
ke3tofthe
W3ter
va
par.
expressea
In
Btu
pe:r
pound('t:ilojoules
per
kilogram)
of dry
alr_
Alsocai!e.::l
hutccnUnt.
adL1Ua~~
A
~
to
temper.ture
occuni04
wtthout
the
3ddltlon
or
removal
of
heat.
as
when
excess
W3~V;lpor
In
the
air
condenses arid
the
I3t.ent heat
of
va
porizatlon
of
the
W3"ter
va
pot"
Is
COI1Y~
to
senslDie
he3t
In
the
31r,
0~~::~
;
:
evaporative
~ling
A
drop
in
kmpenture
occurrlng
wtthaut
the addltlon or
re:t1OV3l
of
heat. as
when
W3ta
eva
por.itcs
and
the
senslple
heat
of
the
t1quld
Is
converted
to
latent
heat
In
the
vapor,Alsa
called
adlapatic
caoll"9.
)
r
I
I
!

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