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Published by: Misra Mayank on Jan 22, 2013
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2nd National Conference on Information and Communication Technology (NCICT) 2011Proceedings published in International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA)
Implementation of GB Interface using InternetProtocol
Kshipra Chowdhary
VIT, Pune666-Upper Indiranagar,Bibewadi, Pune-37
Indraneil Deshmukh
VIT, Pune666-Upper Indiranagar,Bibewadi, Pune-37
Sangeeta Kurundhkar
VIT, Pune666-Upper Indiranagar,Bibewadi, Pune-37
 The GSM technology has lower data rate around 9.6kbps. Alsoit proves expensive for bursty traffic utilization. Therefore toenhance the data capacity of GSM and mitigate some of itslimitations, mobile technology using general packet radioservice (GPRS) has been developed. GPRS adds packet-switched capabilities to existing GSM and TDMA networks.The circuit-switched technology has a long and successfulhistory but it is inefficient for short data transactions andalways-on service. The packet switched technology has grownin importance with the rise of the Internet and Internet protocol(IP).
The Gb interface carries the GPRS traffic and signallingbetween the GSM radio network (BSS) and the GPRS network.Frame Relay based network services is used for this interface.However because of congestion problem and the lowerthroughput, this interface has been implemented using internetprotocol called as the Gb over IP. This paper discusses the basicarchitecture of GPRS, pooling concept and the implementationof the Gb interface using internet protocol. After implementationthe data rate increases to few mbps. This can be achievedthrough increased capacity utilization,network-level redundancy,efficient mobility and simplified O&M. 
 GPRS, IP, Gb over IP.
In early 2000, only a small portion of GSM subscribers useddata services because existing GSM systems do not support easyaccess, high data rate and attractive prices. GSM operators mustoffer better services to stimulate the demand. The solution isGeneral Packet Radio Service (GPRS). GPRS reuses theexisting GSM infrastructure to provide end-to-end packet-switched services. GPRS standardization was initiated byETSI/SMG in 1994. The main set of GPRS specifications wasapproved by SMG #25 in 1997, and was complete in 1999.GPRS products were developed in 1999, and servicedeployment has been in progress. GPRS core network has alsobeen developed with IS-136 TDMA systems, and is anticipatedto evolve as the core network for the third generation mobilesystems.The Gb interface connects the BSS and the SGSN. It allowsfor the exchange of signalling information and user data. Manyusers are multiplexed on the same physical resource. Resourcesare allocated to the user only during activity periods; after theseperiods, resources are immediately released and reallocated to
other users. This is in contrast to the GSM „A‟ interface where
one user has the sole use of a dedicated physical resource duringthe lifetime of a call. No dedicated physical resources arerequired to be allocated for signalling
purposes. Signalling anduser data are sent in the same transmission plane.
It is a system and method in a General Packet Radio Service(GPRS) network for automatically configuring Network ServiceEntity Identifiers (NSEIs) in a Base Station
System (BSS) andServing
GPRS Support Node (SGSN) when the BSS isreconfigured.The Gb interface between the BSS and the SGSN is modifiedto operate using the Internet Protocol (IP), and the BSS and theSGSN are configured to run on IP. Whenever a new Network Service Entity (NSE) is added to an existing BSS, or a new BSSis added to the network, the BSS automatically sends a modifiedNetwork 
Service (NS′)
-Reset message to the SGSN requestingan NSEI. The SGSN dynamically allocates a free NSEI from apool of NSEIs and sends it to the BSS. When an NSE isremoved from the BSS, the BSS automatically sends a modified
-Reset message to the SGSN to free an NSEI. The SGSN de-allocates the NSEI, and returns the NSEI to the pool of freeNSEIs. All related entries for Base Station System GPRSProtocol (BSSGP) Virtual Circuit Identifiers (BVCIs) under thede-allocated NSEI are also removed by the SGSN.
Figure-1 shows the GPRS network nodes and the correspondinginterfaces, where SMS-related components and the EquipmentIdentity Register are not shown. In this architecture, MS, BSS,Mobile Switching Centre/Visitor Location Register (MSC/VLR)and Home Location Register (HLR) in the existing GSMnetwork are modified.
Fig 1: Basic GPRS architecture
The HLR is enhanced with GPRS subscriber information. Twonew network nodes are introduced in GPRS. The Serving GPRSSupport Node (SGSN) is the GPRS equivalent to the MSC. TheGateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) provides interworking
2nd National Conference on Information and Communication Technology (NCICT) 2011Proceedings published in International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA)
5with external packet-switched networks, and is connected withSGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone network. The MS andthe BSS communicates through the Um interface. The BSS andthe SGSN are connected by the Gb interface with Frame Relay.Within the same GPRS network, SGSNs/GGSNs are connectedthrough the Gn Interface. When SGSN and GGSN are indifferent GPRS networks, they are
interconnected via the Gpinterface. The GGSN connects to the external networks throughthe Gi interface
communicates with the BSSusing the existing GSM A interface, and with the SGSN usingthe Gs interface. The HLR connects to SGSN with the Grinterface and to GGSN with Gc interfaces. Both Gr and Gcfollow GSM Mobile Application Part (MAP) protocol defined inGSM 09.02 [4]. The HLR and the VLR are connected throughthe existing GSM D interface. Interfaces A, Gs, Gr, GC, and Dare used for signalling without involving user data transmissionin GPRS. Note that the A interface is used for both signallingand voice transmission in GSM. Interfaces Um, Gb, Gn, Gp andGi are used for both signalling and transmission in GPRS
GPRS uses the radio interface efficiently in two ways. Firstly, itenables a fast method for reserving radio channels. Secondly,the benefit of GPRS is the sharing of resources with circuitswitched connections. GPRS packets can be transmitted in thefree periods between circuit switched calls. Furthermore, GPRSprovides immediate connectivity and high throughput. The mainfunctions of the BSC with GPRS are to:
manage GPRS-specific radio network configuration
control access to GPRS radio resources
share radio resources between GPRS and circuitswitched use
handle signalling between the MS, BTS and ServingGPRS Support Node
Pooling Concept
[Reference no: 1/287 01-FGB 101 256 Uen Rev A 2006-08-23]Traditionally in GPRS-based packet data networks, eachSGSN is wholly responsible for its own service area. If theSGSN becomes unavailable for any reason, subscribers in theservice area no longer have access to packet data services.SGSN Pool
which is standardized for GSM and WCDMAnetworks in 3GPP R5
addresses this issue by introducing amore flexible and resource-efficient architecture with built-innetwork redundancy. With SGSN Pool, all the SGSNs in thenetwork work together and the capacity load between them isdistributed by the BSCs and RNCs. All BSCs and RNCs servingGSM and WCDMA radio access networks are connected to allSGSNs in the pool, as shown in Fig-2 below. If any SGSNbecome unavailable, any attached mobile devices will beautomatically rerouted to another SGSN in the pool.
Fig 2: SGSN Pool overview
Technical Field of the Invention
This invention relates to telecommunication systems and, moreparticularly, to a system and method in a General Packet RadioService (GPRS) network for using a Gb interface, which hasbeen modified to operate using the Internet Protocol (IP), toautomatically configure Network Service Entity Identifiers(NSEIs) in a Base Station System (BSS) and a Serving GPRSSupport Node (SGSN)
Description of related art
The Gb interface is an interface in the GPRSnetwork between the SGSN and the BSS basedon the connection-oriented Frame Relay protocol.The protocol stack currently comprises an L1physical layer (related to Frame Relay), aNetwork Service (NS) layer, and a Base StationSystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) layer. The NSlayer is divided into two sub-layers. The upperNS sub-layer is called the Network ServiceControl (NSC), and is like the glue with theBSSGP layer above. The lower NS sub-layer iscalled SubNetwork Service (SNS), and is like theglue with the underlying Frame Relay structure.
solution is to encapsulate the Frame Relayinformation in IP packets sent between the twonodes. Also, there are existing networks using theGb interface over Frame Relay, and any newinterface needs to be backward compatible tosupport these Frame Relay networks. Therefore,the new interface must have a protocol stack thatsupports both Frame Relay and IP.
It would be advantageous to have an interfacebetween the BSS and the SGSN that is based onthe IP protocol. There is a larger pool of productsavailable for IP than for Frame Relay, and the useof IP allows the use of several different layer 1and layer 2 technologies (e.g., Frame Relay,Ethernet, fiber optics, etc.). In essence, the Gbinterface would become carrier-independent andmuch more flexible in terms of routing. It wouldalso be easier to maintain.
Basing the interface on IP would provideadditional flexibility and features that exist in IPbut not in Frame Relay. For example, an
2nd National Conference on Information and Communication Technology (NCICT) 2011Proceedings published in International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA)
6automatic configuration method would enableBSS components to be changed, or new BSSs tobe added to the network while automaticallyconfiguring the SGSN to handle the new network configuration. In the existing Frame Relay-basedGb interface, information is carried between thenodes using virtual circuits. These connectionsmust be established manually.
The SGSN must know in advance which fictionalentity is going to be on the other side of eachvirtual circuit, so when there is a change to theBSS, a technician must physically go to theSGSN and enter the same data that was set up inthe BSS. For example, identifying numbers areassigned to each functional entity, and thetechnician must manually deconflict thesenumbers by making sure that the numbers that heassigns in the BSS are not already assigned in theSGSN to other entities.
Transmission plane on GB interface.
Transmission over the Gb interface was based on frame relay.Point-to-point (PTP) physical lines or an intermediate framerelay network were used to connect the SGSN and the BSS.
Fig 3: Transmission plane on Gb interface
 NS Layer 
The NS layer provides a frame-based, multiplexed link layertransport mechanism across the Gb interface that relies on theframe relay protocol. The NS layer has been split into twosublayers, subnetwork service (SNS) and network servicecontrol (NSC) in order to make one sublayer independent of theintermediate transmission network. SNS is based on frame relaybut NSC is independent of the transmission network. Later, itwill be possible to change the transmission network (e.g., withan IP network) without changing the NSC sublayer.Peer-to-peer communication across the Gb interface between thetwo remote NS entities in the BSS and the SGSN is performedover virtual connections. The NS layer is responsible for themanagement of the virtual connections between the BSS and theSGSN (verification of the availability of the virtual connections,initialization, and restoring of a virtual connection). It providesinformation on the status and the availability of the virtualconnections to the BSSGP layer. It ensures the distribution of upper-layer PDUs between the different possible virtualconnections (load-sharing function).
SNS provides access tothe intermediate transmission network (i.e., the frame relaynetwork). NSC is responsible for upper-layer data (BSSGPPDUs) transmission, load sharing, and virtual connectionmanagement.
 BSSGP Principle
The BSSGP layer ensures the transmission of upper-layer data(LLC PDUs) from the BSS to the SGSN or from the SGSN tothe BSS. It ensures the transmission of GMM signalling and NMsignalling.The peer-to-peer communication across the Gbinterface between the two remote BSSGP entities in the BSS andthe SGSN is performed over virtual connections. There is onevirtual connection per cell at BSSGP layer. Each virtualconnection can be supported by several layer 2 links between theSGSN and the BSS. The BSSGP layer is responsible for themanagement of the virtual connections between the SGSN andthe BSS (verification of the availability of the virtualconnections, initialization and restoring of a virtual connection).The BSSGP layer also ensures the data flow control between theSGSN and the BSS. There is a one-to-one relationship betweenthe BSSGP in the SGSN and in the BSS. That means if oneSGSN handles several BSSs, the SGSN must have one BSSGPprotocol machine for each BSS. Figure-4 shows the position of the BSSGP layer within the BSS and the SGSN.
Fig 4: Position of the BSSGP layer within the BSS andSGSN
The present invention uses a Gb-over-IP interface
(Gb′) between the SGSN and the BSS to implement anautomatic “plug and play” configuration methodology.The Gb′ interface implements a protocol stack in the
SGSN and the BSS that includes a User DatagramProtocol (UDP) layer over an IP layer. Data packetsare then transmitted between the BSS and the SGSNover a connectionless IP network. The data packetscarry information between functional entities in theSGSN and functional entities in the BSS.
The protocol stack includes a Base Station SystemGPRS Protocol (BSSGP) protocol layer that providesradio-related, Quality-of-Service (QoS), and routinginformation that is required to transmit user databetween the BSS and the SGSN. The stack alsoincludes a modifi
ed Network Services (NS′) layer which is divided into an upper NS′ Network ServiceControl (NS′
-NSC) sub-
layer and a lower NS′
 Network Service (NS′
-SNS) sub-
layer. The NS′
-NSCsub-layer maps to the BSSGP layer and managesfunctional entities therein. T
he NS′
-SNS sub-layer

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