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1.1. What are ﬂows?

1.2. Fluid particle and ﬁelds

1.3. Stream-line, particle-path and streak-line

1.3.1. Stream-line

1.3.2. Particle-path (path-line)

1.3.3. Streak-line

1.3.4. Lagrange derivative

1.4. Relative motion

1.4.1. Decomposition

1.4.2. Symmetric part (pure straining motion)

1.4.3. Anti-symmetric part (local rotation)

1.5. Problems

2.1. Continuum and transport phenomena

2.2. Mass diﬀusion in a ﬂuid mixture

2.3. Thermal diﬀusion

2.4. Momentum transfer

2.5. An ideal ﬂuid and Newtonian viscous ﬂuid

2.6. Viscous stress

2.7. Problems

3.1. Mass conservation

3.2. Conservation form

3.3. Momentum conservation

3.3.1. Equation of motion

3.3.2. Momentum ﬂux

3.4. Energy conservation

3.4.1. Adiabatic motion

3.4.2. Energy ﬂux

3.5. Problems

Viscous ﬂuids

4.1. Equation of motion of a viscous ﬂuid

4.2. Energy equation and entropy equation

4.3. Energy dissipation in an incompressible ﬂuid

4.4. Reynolds similarity law

4.5. Boundary layer

4.6. Parallel shear ﬂows

4.6.1. Steady ﬂows

4.6.2. Unsteady ﬂow

4.7. Rotating ﬂows

4.8. Low Reynolds number ﬂows

4.8.1. Stokes equation

4.8.2. Stokeslet

4.8.3. Slow motion of a sphere

4.9. Flows around a circular cylinder

4.10. Drag coeﬃcient and lift coeﬃcient

4.11. Problems

Flows of ideal ﬂuids

5.1. Bernoulli’s equation

5.2. Kelvin’s circulation theorem

5.3. Flux of vortex-lines

5.4. Potential ﬂows

5.5. Irrotational incompressible ﬂows (3D)7

5.6.1. Source (or sink)

5.6.2. A source in a uniform ﬂow

5.6.3. Dipole

5.6.4. A sphere in a uniform ﬂow

5.6.5. A vortex line

5.7. Irrotational incompressible ﬂows (2D)

5.8.1. Source (or sink)

5.8.2. A source in a uniform ﬂow

5.8.3. Dipole

5.8.4. A circular cylinder in a uniform ﬂow

5.8.5. Point vortex (a line vortex)

5.9. Induced mass

5.9.2. Induced mass

5.9.3. d’Alembert’s paradox and virtual mass

5.10. Problems

6.2.2. Condition of surface motion

6.3. Small amplitude waves of deep water

6.3.1. Boundary conditions

6.3.2. Traveling waves

6.3.3. Meaning of small amplitude

6.3.4. Particle trajectory

6.3.5. Phase velocity and group velocity

6.4. Surface waves on water of a ﬁnite depth

6.6. Sound waves

6.6.1. One-dimensional ﬂows

6.6.2. Equation of sound wave

6.6.3. Plane waves

6.7. Shock waves

6.8. Problems

Vortex motions

7.1. Equations for vorticity

7.1.1. Vorticity equation

7.1.2. Biot–Savart’s law for velocity

7.1.3. Invariants of motion

7.2. Helmholtz’s theorem

7.2.1. Material line element and vortex-line

7.2.2. Helmholtz’s vortex theorem

7.3. Two-dimensional vortex motions

7.3.1. Vorticity equation

7.3.2. Integral invariants

7.3.3. Velocity ﬁeld at distant points

7.3.4. Point vortex

7.3.5. Vortex sheet

7.4. Motion of two point vortices

7.6.1. Hill’s spherical vortex

7.6.2. Circular vortex ring

7.7. Curved vortex ﬁlament

7.8. Filament equation (an integrable equation)

7.9. Burgers vortex (a viscous vortex with swirl)

8.1. Flows in a rotating frame

8.2. Geostrophic ﬂows

8.3. Taylor–Proudman theorem

8.4. A model of dry cyclone (or anticyclone)

8.5. Rossby waves

8.6. Stratiﬁed ﬂows

Instability and chaos

9.1. Linear stability theory

9.2. Kelvin–Helmholtz instability

9.2.1. Linearization

9.2.2. Normal-mode analysis

9.3. Stability of parallel shear ﬂows

9.3.1. Inviscid ﬂows (ν = 0)

9.3.2. Viscous ﬂows

9.4. Thermal convection

9.4.1. Description of the problem

9.4.2. Linear stability analysis

9.4.3. Convection cell

9.5. Lorenz system

9.5.1. Derivation of the Lorenz system

9.5.2. Discovery stories of deterministic chaos

9.5.3. Stability of ﬁxed points

9.6. Lorenz attractor and deterministic chaos

9.6.1. Lorenz attractor

9.6.2. Lorenz map and deterministic chaos

9.7. Problems

10.1. Reynolds experiment

10.2. Turbulence signals

10.3. Energy spectrum and energy dissipation

10.3.1. Energy spectrum

10.3.2. Energy dissipation

10.3.3. Inertial range and ﬁve-thirds law

10.3.4. Scale of viscous dissipation

and Oboukov

10.4. Vortex structures in turbulence

10.4.1. Stretching of line-elements

enhancement

10.4.3. Identiﬁcation of vortices in turbulence

10.4.4. Structure functions

10.4.5. Structure functions at small s

10.5. Problems

11.1. Two-ﬂuid model

11.2.1. Bose gas

representation

11.2.3. Gross–Pitaevskii equation

11.3. Quantized vortices

11.3.1. Quantized circulation

11.4. Bose–Einstein Condensation (BEC)

11.4.1. BEC in dilute alkali-atomic gases

11.5. Problems

Gauge theory of ideal ﬂuid ﬂows

12.1. Backgrounds of the theory

12.1.1. Gauge invariances

mechanics

12.1.3. Brief scenario of gauge principle

12.2. Mechanical system

12.2.1. System of n point masses

12.2.2. Global invariance and conservation laws

12.3. Fluid as a continuous ﬁeld of mass

12.3.1. Global invariance extended to a ﬂuid

12.3.2. Covariant derivative

12.4. Symmetry of ﬂow ﬁelds I: Translation symmetry

12.4.1. Translational transformations

12.4.2. Galilean transformation (global)

12.4.3. Local Galilean transformation

symmetry)

12.4.5. Galilean invariant Lagrangian

12.5. Symmetry of ﬂow ﬁelds II: Rotation symmetry

12.5.1. Rotational transformations

12.5.2. Inﬁnitesimal rotational transformation

12.5.3. Gauge transformation (rotation symmetry)

symmetry

12.6. Variational formulation for ﬂows of an ideal ﬂuid

12.6.1. Covariant derivative (in summary)

12.6.2. Particle velocity

12.6.3. Action principle

12.6.4. Outcomes of variations

12.6.5. Irrotational ﬂow

12.6.6. Clebsch solution

12.7. Variations and Noether’s theorem

12.7.1. Local variations

12.7.2. Invariant variation

12.7.3. Noether’s theorem

12.8. Additional notes

12.8.1. Potential parts

12.8.2. Additional note on the rotational symmetry

12.9. Problem

A.1. Deﬁnitions

A.2. Scalar product

A.3. Vector product

A.4. Triple products

A.5. Diﬀerential operators

A.6. Integration theorems

A.7. δ function

B.1. Velocity potential

B.2. Stream function (2D)

B.3. Stokes’ stream function (axisymmetric)

D.3. Spherical polar coordinates

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MECHANICS

MECHANICS

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03/19/2014

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