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Table Of Contents

1.1. What are flows?
1.2. Fluid particle and fields
1.3. Stream-line, particle-path and streak-line
1.3.1. Stream-line
1.3.2. Particle-path (path-line)
1.3.3. Streak-line
1.3.4. Lagrange derivative
1.4. Relative motion
1.4.1. Decomposition
1.4.2. Symmetric part (pure straining motion)
1.4.3. Anti-symmetric part (local rotation)
1.5. Problems
2.1. Continuum and transport phenomena
2.2. Mass diffusion in a fluid mixture
2.3. Thermal diffusion
2.4. Momentum transfer
2.5. An ideal fluid and Newtonian viscous fluid
2.6. Viscous stress
2.7. Problems
3.1. Mass conservation
3.2. Conservation form
3.3. Momentum conservation
3.3.1. Equation of motion
3.3.2. Momentum flux
3.4. Energy conservation
3.4.1. Adiabatic motion
3.4.2. Energy flux
3.5. Problems
Viscous fluids
4.1. Equation of motion of a viscous fluid
4.2. Energy equation and entropy equation
4.3. Energy dissipation in an incompressible fluid
4.4. Reynolds similarity law
4.5. Boundary layer
4.6. Parallel shear flows
4.6.1. Steady flows
4.6.2. Unsteady flow
4.7. Rotating flows
4.8. Low Reynolds number flows
4.8.1. Stokes equation
4.8.2. Stokeslet
4.8.3. Slow motion of a sphere
4.9. Flows around a circular cylinder
4.10. Drag coefficient and lift coefficient
4.11. Problems
Flows of ideal fluids
5.1. Bernoulli’s equation
5.2. Kelvin’s circulation theorem
5.3. Flux of vortex-lines
5.4. Potential flows
5.5. Irrotational incompressible flows (3D)7
5.6.1. Source (or sink)
5.6.2. A source in a uniform flow
5.6.3. Dipole
5.6.4. A sphere in a uniform flow
5.6.5. A vortex line
5.7. Irrotational incompressible flows (2D)
5.8.1. Source (or sink)
5.8.2. A source in a uniform flow
5.8.3. Dipole
5.8.4. A circular cylinder in a uniform flow
5.8.5. Point vortex (a line vortex)
5.9. Induced mass
5.9.2. Induced mass
5.9.3. d’Alembert’s paradox and virtual mass
5.10. Problems
6.2.2. Condition of surface motion
6.3. Small amplitude waves of deep water
6.3.1. Boundary conditions
6.3.2. Traveling waves
6.3.3. Meaning of small amplitude
6.3.4. Particle trajectory
6.3.5. Phase velocity and group velocity
6.4. Surface waves on water of a finite depth
6.6. Sound waves
6.6.1. One-dimensional flows
6.6.2. Equation of sound wave
6.6.3. Plane waves
6.7. Shock waves
6.8. Problems
Vortex motions
7.1. Equations for vorticity
7.1.1. Vorticity equation
7.1.2. Biot–Savart’s law for velocity
7.1.3. Invariants of motion
7.2. Helmholtz’s theorem
7.2.1. Material line element and vortex-line
7.2.2. Helmholtz’s vortex theorem
7.3. Two-dimensional vortex motions
7.3.1. Vorticity equation
7.3.2. Integral invariants
7.3.3. Velocity field at distant points
7.3.4. Point vortex
7.3.5. Vortex sheet
7.4. Motion of two point vortices
7.6.1. Hill’s spherical vortex
7.6.2. Circular vortex ring
7.7. Curved vortex filament
7.8. Filament equation (an integrable equation)
7.9. Burgers vortex (a viscous vortex with swirl)
8.1. Flows in a rotating frame
8.2. Geostrophic flows
8.3. Taylor–Proudman theorem
8.4. A model of dry cyclone (or anticyclone)
8.5. Rossby waves
8.6. Stratified flows
Instability and chaos
9.1. Linear stability theory
9.2. Kelvin–Helmholtz instability
9.2.1. Linearization
9.2.2. Normal-mode analysis
9.3. Stability of parallel shear flows
9.3.1. Inviscid flows (ν = 0)
9.3.2. Viscous flows
9.4. Thermal convection
9.4.1. Description of the problem
9.4.2. Linear stability analysis
9.4.3. Convection cell
9.5. Lorenz system
9.5.1. Derivation of the Lorenz system
9.5.2. Discovery stories of deterministic chaos
9.5.3. Stability of fixed points
9.6. Lorenz attractor and deterministic chaos
9.6.1. Lorenz attractor
9.6.2. Lorenz map and deterministic chaos
9.7. Problems
10.1. Reynolds experiment
10.2. Turbulence signals
10.3. Energy spectrum and energy dissipation
10.3.1. Energy spectrum
10.3.2. Energy dissipation
10.3.3. Inertial range and five-thirds law
10.3.4. Scale of viscous dissipation
and Oboukov
10.4. Vortex structures in turbulence
10.4.1. Stretching of line-elements
enhancement
10.4.3. Identification of vortices in turbulence
10.4.4. Structure functions
10.4.5. Structure functions at small s
10.5. Problems
11.1. Two-fluid model
11.2.1. Bose gas
representation
11.2.3. Gross–Pitaevskii equation
11.3. Quantized vortices
11.3.1. Quantized circulation
11.4. Bose–Einstein Condensation (BEC)
11.4.1. BEC in dilute alkali-atomic gases
11.5. Problems
Gauge theory of ideal fluid flows
12.1. Backgrounds of the theory
12.1.1. Gauge invariances
mechanics
12.1.3. Brief scenario of gauge principle
12.2. Mechanical system
12.2.1. System of n point masses
12.2.2. Global invariance and conservation laws
12.3. Fluid as a continuous field of mass
12.3.1. Global invariance extended to a fluid
12.3.2. Covariant derivative
12.4. Symmetry of flow fields I: Translation symmetry
12.4.1. Translational transformations
12.4.2. Galilean transformation (global)
12.4.3. Local Galilean transformation
symmetry)
12.4.5. Galilean invariant Lagrangian
12.5. Symmetry of flow fields II: Rotation symmetry
12.5.1. Rotational transformations
12.5.2. Infinitesimal rotational transformation
12.5.3. Gauge transformation (rotation symmetry)
symmetry
12.6. Variational formulation for flows of an ideal fluid
12.6.1. Covariant derivative (in summary)
12.6.2. Particle velocity
12.6.3. Action principle
12.6.4. Outcomes of variations
12.6.5. Irrotational flow
12.6.6. Clebsch solution
12.7. Variations and Noether’s theorem
12.7.1. Local variations
12.7.2. Invariant variation
12.7.3. Noether’s theorem
12.8. Additional notes
12.8.1. Potential parts
12.8.2. Additional note on the rotational symmetry
12.9. Problem
A.1. Definitions
A.2. Scalar product
A.3. Vector product
A.4. Triple products
A.5. Differential operators
A.6. Integration theorems
A.7. δ function
B.1. Velocity potential
B.2. Stream function (2D)
B.3. Stokes’ stream function (axisymmetric)
D.3. Spherical polar coordinates
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MECHANICS

MECHANICS

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MECHANICS
MECHANICS

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Published by: yusuf2mail on Jan 22, 2013
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