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Judgement and Sentence - Jugement - Bagosora-Kabiligi-Ntabakuze-Nsengiyumva

Judgement and Sentence - Jugement - Bagosora-Kabiligi-Ntabakuze-Nsengiyumva

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Published by: Kagatama on Feb 11, 2009
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ORIGINAL: ENGLISHTRIAL CHAMBER IBefore
: Judge Erik Møse, presidingJudge Jai Ram ReddyJudge Sergei Alekseevich Egorov
Registrar:
Adama Dieng
 Date:
18 December 2008
THE PROSECUTOR v.Théoneste BAGOSORAGratien KABILIGIAloys NTABAKUZEAnatole NSENGIYUMVACase No. ICTR-98-41-TJUDGEMENT AND SENTENCEOffice of the Prosecutor:
 
Counsel for the Defence:
Barbara Mulvaney Raphaël ConstantChristine Graham Allison TurnerKartik Murukutla Paul SkolnikRashid Rashid Frédéric HivonGregory Townsend Peter ErlinderDrew White Kennedy OgettoGershom Otachi Bw’Omanwa
International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaTribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda
 
The Prosecutor v. Théoneste Bagosora et al.,
Case No. ICTR-98-41-TJudgement and Sentence i 18 December 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER I:
 
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................ 1
 
1.
 
Overview ................................................................................................................... 1
 
2.
 
The Accused ............................................................................................................. 8
 2.1 Théoneste Bagosora ................................................................................................... 82.2 Gratien Kabiligi ....................................................................................................... 102.3 Aloys Ntabakuze ...................................................................................................... 102.4 Anatole Nsengiyumva .............................................................................................. 11
CHAPTER II:
 
PRELIMINARY ISSUES .......................................................................... 14
 
1.
 
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 14
 
2.
 
Trial Without Undue Delay .................................................................................. 14
 
3.
 
Initial Appearance Without Delay ....................................................................... 17
 
4.
 
Rule 40
 bis
............................................................................................................... 20
 4.1 Extension of Provisional Detention ......................................................................... 204.2 Notification of Charges ............................................................................................ 21
5.
 
Notice of Charges ................................................................................................... 21
 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 215.2 Law .......................................................................................................................... 225.3 General Challenges to the Indictments .................................................................... 245.4 Cumulative Effect of Defects in the Indictments ..................................................... 25
6.
 
Presence at Trial .................................................................................................... 26
 
7.
 
Admission of Evidence .......................................................................................... 28
 
8.
 
Disclosure Before Cross-Examination ................................................................. 29
 
CHAPTER III:
 
FACTUAL FINDINGS .............................................................................. 30
 
1.
 
Background ............................................................................................................ 30
 1.1 Arusha Accords ........................................................................................................ 301.2 Rwandan Armed Forces ........................................................................................... 321.3 United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda ..................................................... 39
2.
 
Allegations of Planning and Preparation of the Genocide ................................. 45
 2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 452.2 Definition of the Enemy........................................................................................... 462.3 Apocalypse Statement, Late October 1992 .............................................................. 50
 
The Prosecutor v. Théoneste Bagosora et al.,
Case No. ICTR-98-41-TJudgement and Sentence ii 18 December 2008
2.4 Meetings Before 6 April 1994 ................................................................................. 532.4.1 Meetings at Camp Kanombe, 1992 - 1993 ....................................................... 532.4.2 MRND Meeting, Umuganda Stadium, 27 October 1993 ................................. 592.4.3 Distribution of Weapons, Bugarama, 28 January 1994 ................................... 612.4.4 Meeting at Ruhengeri Military Camp, 15 February 1994 ................................ 652.4.5 Meeting at Gisenyi MRND Headquarters, February 1994 .............................. 722.4.6 Butare Meeting, February 1994 ....................................................................... 742.4.7 Senegalese Dinner, 4 April 1994 ..................................................................... 802.5 Preparation and Use of Lists .................................................................................... 852.5.1 Arrests, October 1990 ...................................................................................... 852.5.2 Orders to the General Staff, 1992 .................................................................... 922.5.3 Déogratias Nsabimana’s Vehicle, 1993 ........................................................... 972.5.4
 Interahamwe
................................................................................................... 1022.5.5 Use of Lists, 1994 .......................................................................................... 1052.6 Creation, Training and Arming of Civilian Militias .............................................. 1092.6.1
 Interahamwe
and Other Political Party Militias............................................. 1102.6.2 Rwanda’s Civil Defence System and Civilian Assailants .............................. 1112.6.3 Jean-Pierre ...................................................................................................... 1242.7 Zero Network ......................................................................................................... 1292.8 AMASASU ............................................................................................................ 1342.9 Death Squads ......................................................................................................... 1462.10
 Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines
............................................................. 158
3.
 
Events from 6 to 9 April 1994 ............................................................................. 166
 3.1 Death of President Habyarimana ........................................................................... 1663.2 Meetings, 6 - 7 April .............................................................................................. 1663.2.1 Crisis Committee ............................................................................................ 1673.2.2 Meeting with Booh-Booh ............................................................................... 1693.2.3 Meeting with the United States’ Ambassador ................................................ 1703.2.4 Meeting at ESM ............................................................................................. 1713.3 Political Killings, 7 April ....................................................................................... 1743.3.1 Political Context ............................................................................................. 1753.3.2 Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana ........................................................ 1763.3.3 Officials in Kimihurura .................................................................................. 1833.4 Killing of 10 Belgian Peacekeepers, 7 April ......................................................... 190

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