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their fears. More commonly, however, they avoid the situation or object that causesthe fear
an avoidance that impairs the sufferer's freedom.Psychiatrists recognize three major types of phobias. Simple phobias are fears of specific objects or situations such as animals, closed spaces, and heights. The secondtype, agoraphobia, is fear of open, public places and situations (such as public vehiclesand crowded shopping centres) from which escape is difficult; agoraphobics tendincreasingly to avoid more situations until eventually they become housebound. Socialphobias, the third type, are fears of appearing stupid or shameful in social situations.The simple phobias, especially the fear of animals, may begin in childhood and persistinto adulthood. Agoraphobia characteristically begins in late adolescence or earlyadulthood, and social phobia is also associated with adolescence.
Anxiety disorders involve excessive apprehension, worry, and fear. People withgeneralized anxiety disorder experience constant anxiety about routine events in theirlives. Persons with
feel anxious most of the time. They worryexcessively about routine events or circumstances in their lives. Their worries oftenrelate to finances, family, personal health, and relationships with others. Althoughthey recognize their anxiety as irrational or out of proportion to actual events, theyfeel unable to control their worrying. For example, they may worry uncontrollably andintensely about money despite evidence that their financial situation is stable. Childrenwith this disorder typically worry about their performance at school or aboutcatastrophic events, such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and nuclear war.People with anxiety disorder often find that their worries interfere with their ability tofunction at work or concentrate on tasks. Physical symptoms, such as disturbed sleep,irritability, muscle aches, and tension, may accompany the anxiety. To receive adiagnosis of this disorder, individuals must have experienced its symptoms for at leastsix months.
Russian physiologist Ivan P.
classical conditioning therapy involved the useof dogs in studying the concept of behaviour modification. Pavlov knew for a fact thatdogs
indeed all animals
salivates when eating. In his experimentation, Pavlovbegan to present a neutral stimulus, such as signal light or bell, before feeding the
dogs. Obviously, the signal had no noticeable effect on the dogs’ salivation. But
Pavlov kept the signal on when the dogs were being fed (and actively salivating), and,over the course of time, Pavlov found that the signal alone, even without his offeringfood, gradually caused the dogs to salivate.