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Personality Assessment

Personality Assessment

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Psychological Assessment Tools
Psychological Assessment Tools

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Oniwura Bolarinwa Olapade on Jan 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/26/2014

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What is Personality?
Personality encompasses a person’s relative state, feelings, thoughts and
behaviour patterns; meaning a uniqueness that differentiates us from otherpeople. A sum total of individual characteristics and ways of behaving which intheir organization or patterning describes an
individual’s
unique adjustment tohis/her environment.Personality is the characteristic patterns of behaviour and modes of thinking that determine a person's adjustment to the environment. Personality is thecombination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctivecharacter. It encompasses the enduring traits and characteristics that relates to a
person’s emotions,
motivations, interpersonal interactions and attitudes.
What is Personality Assessment?
Psychological assessment is a process that involves the integration of information from multiple sources, such as tests of normal and abnormalpersonality, tests of ability or intelligence, tests of interests or attitudes, as wellas information from personal interviews. Collateral information is also collectedabout personal, occupational, or medical history, such as from records or frominterviews with parents, spouses, teachers, or previous therapists or physicians.A
 psychological test 
is one of the sources of data used within the process of assessment; usually more than one test is used. Many psychologists do somelevel of assessment when providing services to clients or patients, and may usefor example, simple checklists to assess some traits or symptoms, but psychological assessment is a more complex, detailed, in-depth process. Typicaltypes of focus for psychological assessment are to provide a diagnosis fortreatment settings; to assess a particular area of functioning or disability oftenfor school settings; to help select type of treatment or to assess treatment outcomes; to help courts decide issues such as child custody or competency tostand trial; or to help assess job applicants or employees and provide careerdevelopment counselling or training.
Psychometric Properties of Personality Assessment:
Psychometric properties deal with the scientific measurement of individualdifferences (personality and intelligence). It attempts to measure thepsychological qualities of individuals and use that knowledge to make
predictions about behaviour. It assesses a person’s ability or personality in a
measured and structured way. It involves two major research tasks, namely:
 
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(i)
 
The construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and(ii)
 
The development and refinement of theoretical approaches tomeasurement.
Five Personality Assessment Techniques:
 
 
Rorschach Inkblot Test.
 
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
 
Myers Briggs Type Indication (MBTI ®).
 
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) / Pictorial Test.
 
Five Factor Model (FFM).
1. Rorschach Inkblot Test 
 
 Author/Year or Design:
The originator of this test is the Swiss Psychiatrist bythe name of Hermann Rorschach in the year 1921. (He was credited as theoriginator of inkblot technique because he found an original and important usefor inkblot, especially in identifying psychological disorder and he was the first toapply inkblot to the diagnostic investigation of the personality as a whole).
What it Measures:
Rorschach inkblot test is a psychological test in whichsubjects' perceptions of inkblot are recorded and then analyzed usingpsychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personalitycharacteristics and emotional functioning. It also detects underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctantly to describe theirthinking processes openly.
Description of the Test/Test Items:
The Rorschach inkblot test consists of aseries of 10 cards, each displaying a rather complex or ambiguous inkblot.Rorschach developed each stimulus card by dropping ink onto a piece of paperand folding it. The outcome was a unique, bilaterally symmetrical form on awhite background.Five were black and gray, two contained black, gray and red, and three containedposter colours of various shades.Each card of Rorschach is administered twice; the first is the free associationphase while the second is the inquiry phase. During the free association phase,the cards are presented by the examiner; one at a time and the subject is thenasked something like "What mig
ht this be?”
 
 
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No restriction is placed on responses, or is only a particular type of responseallowed, and no clues are given on what is expected. The examiner records everyword and every sound made by the subject taking the test verbatim. In addition,the examiner records how long it takes a subject to respond to each card(reaction time) and the position of the card when the response is made (upsidedown, sideways or right side up). Sounds made by the subject may be recordedtoo.The purpose of the inquiry phase is to allow the examiner to score the subject'sresponses. Responses are scored according to at least five dimensions, including:1. Location - whether the response involves the entire inkblots or some part.2. Determinants - what determined the response, whether the subject respondsto the shape of the blot, colour, or difference in texture and shading.3. Form quality - the extent to which the responses matched the stimulusproperties of the inkblots.4. Content - what the perception represents.5. Frequency of occurrence - the extent to which the response was popular ororiginal; popular responses occur once in every three protocols on the average.The technique can test if the subjects possess abstract ideas or concrete realities,inner thoughts, creative originality or a high or low sense of consciousness.From the subject's scores on the questions asked, the tester draws someconclusions. For instance, seeing the blot as wholes indicates a preference forabstract ideas, while reacting to their parts shows a preference for concreterealities.
Psychometric Properties:
It is exceptionally difficult to evaluate the Rorschachtest using classical psychometric properties. The lack of standardization inadministering and scoring the test has been a primary criticism and a source of difficulty for researchers who are trying to compare results from different studies.The reliability of this test depend substantially on details of testing procedure,such as where the tester and subject are seated, any introductory words, verbaland non verbal responses to subjects' questions of comments, and howresponses are recorded.Attempts have been made to improve the psychometric properties of theRorschach test through the use of the Exner Scoring System which standardizethe scoring and interpretive system which has made the test a little bit morevalid and reliable.

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