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digital electronics

digital electronics

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Published by Chandan Kumar
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Published by: Chandan Kumar on Jan 23, 2013
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Introduction 1INTRODUCTIONElectronics is heavily relied on by most other areas of electrical engineering. While there is aconsiderable body of theory in communications, controls, etc., these areas ultimately useelectronics to actually implement the functions.Electronic circuits use electronic devices to perform functions on signals such as amplification,filtering, rectifying, switching, etc.. Electronics has been a major topic of study in ElectricalEngineering for nearly a century. Early electronic circuits used devices such as spark gaps andpoint-contact crystal diodes to perform signal processing. Later on, vacuum tubes wereinvented which made electronic communications and control systems widely available. In thelate 1940’s, semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors became available whichcreated an electronics revolution. With these changes in technology, the study of electronics didnot change significantly, only the devices changed. The circuits and the methods did not changesubstantially.The study of electronics can be roughly divided into two areas, devices and circuits. The studyof devices is concerned with physical processes such as electron flow while the study of circuitsemphasizes using the devices in applications and signal processing functions. The study of electronic circuits is further subdivided into analog, or linear, and digital, or switching,electronics. This course focuses on digital electronic circuits.By far, the greatest use of digital electronic circuits occurs in digital computers. Logic circuitsare widely available from simple logic gates in small-scale integrated (SSI) circuits to verycomplex digital functions in very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. In almost all digitalcircuits, transistors and diodes operate in two modes, on or off, carrying current or not carryingcurrent; in essence, a switch. We will look at how digital logic circuits operate and what theterminal characteristics and manufacturer’s specifications mean. We will then look at how to gobeyond the logic circuits with interfaces both at the inputs and outputs.We begin this course with a brief discussion of semiconductor materials and pn junctions. Thismaterial is neither rigorously developed nor complete. A rigorous study of semiconductorelectronics is left for later. However, to effectively use semiconductor devices, it is necessary tohave a basic understanding of how they work.Because electronic devices are non-linear, we will look at their terminal characteristics andmake circuit models of the devices that will allow us to use to linear circuit analysis techniques toanalyze the circuits. We will then look at application of semiconductor devices in switchingcircuits including logic gates, interface circuits, and special applications. Many electronic systemsinvolve both analog and digital circuits and during this course, we will look at some of thesecases requiring a mixture of applications. The ultimate test of understanding the material of thiscourse will be found in the design exercises.
Chapter 1Semiconductors 1 SemiconductorsTHE ELECTRON IN ELECTRIC FIELDSIf we were to take two parallel plates and connect a voltage source across them as shownin Figure 1, an electric field would be set up between the plates. Neglecting fringingaround the edges, the electric field would be uniform everywhere between the plates. Theelectric field strength would be
 E =
V/d (1)where V is the applied voltage and d is the distance between the plates. Thus, the electricfield strength
has the units volts per centimeter and is a vector quantity going from a positive charge to a negative charge. Note: CGS units are normally used insemiconductor physics - centimeters, grams, seconds. Now if a tiny person, let's call her Millie Micron, was able to carry an electron into theregion between the plates and release it as shown in Figure 2, the electron would beattracted to the positive plate and repelled by the negative plate. The force on the electronwould beFx= -q
x(2)where q is the electronic charge. The negative sign occurs because the electron isaccelerated in the negative x direction, toward the positive plate. Of course, the electronwould obey Newton's laws and the acceleration, ax, would be a function of the mass of the electron, m, and the force exerted by the electric field,Fx= -max (3)
Chapter 1Semiconductors 2 Figure 2. Millie releasing an electronwithin the electric fieldAs the electron accelerates, it gains kinetic energy. Just as with objects with mass in agravitational field, the electron in an electric field has potential energy that can beconverted to kinetic energy. The total energy then isW = U + 1/2mv2 (4)where U is the potential energy and v is the velocity. The energy associated with a singleelectron is quite small compared to units we normally work with so we use the unitselectron volts defined as moving one electron across a potential difference of one volt.1 eV = 1.602 x 10-19joules (1 joule = 1 watt second)The electronic charge is 1.602 x 10-19coulombs (ampere-seconds).In our example, if the voltage source is 5 volts and Millie released the electron at thenegative plate, the electron would gain five electron volts of energy as it fell to the positive plate. At that point it would have zero potential energy. Thus, at the point of release, the electron had a potential energy of 5 eV. This 5 eV would be converted tokinetic energy by the time it arrived at the positive plate.To look at this another way, let's look at a plot of the electric potential within the field.We will assume the positive plate is grounded and at zero potential. The negative plate isat negative five volts with the potential changing linearly in between as shown in Figure3. In this example, let's assume Millie is standing on the positive plate and throws theelectron toward the negative plate. If she throws it gently, it will start with only a smallkinetic energy which is soon converted to potential energy as the electron goes against theelectric field. When all the kinetic energy is converted to potential energy, the electronhas zero velocity. The electric field accelerates the electron back toward the positive plate. The effect is that the electron falls back to Millie and she catches it. If she thenthrows it again, but this time a little harder, it will go further, but will again fall back.Say, this is a neat game isn't it?. This is similar to throwing a ball up a sloping roof and

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