detached dwellings, 12% bungalows, 20% semi-detachedhomes and 26% terraced houses; the remaining 4% of homeswere apartments. Thirteen percent of the homes were less than15 years old, 25% between 15 and 30 years old, 33% between30 and 60 years old and 29% of houses were over 60 years old.Seventeen percent of houses had one occupant, 25% had twooccupants, 28% had three occupants, 17% had four occupantsand 13% had ﬁve or more than ﬁve occupants. The daytimeoccupancywasasfollows:41%hadno occupants,27% hadoneoccupant, 23% had two occupants and 9% had three occupants.Of ‘‘primary occupants’’ (i.e. those persons who wereinterviewed) 74% were employed, 17% were retired and 9%were unemployed. Furthermore, 52% of occupants (i.e. alloccupants including ‘‘primary occupants’’) were employed,13% were retired, 4% were unemployed, 21% were childrenand 10% were in ‘other’ category (students, home-makers,etc.).Household income varied from 13% earning less than£10,000 per annum, 13% earning between £10,000 and£20,000, 22% earning between £20,000 and £30,000 to 52%of householders’ combined total income exceeding £30,000.Six percent of ‘‘primary occupants’’ were younger than 30years old, 60% between 31 and 50 years old, 28% between51and 70 years old and the remaining 6% over 71 years old. Of all occupants 41% were less than 30 years of age, 36% between31and 50 years of age, 18% between 51and 70 years of age and5% of all occupants were older than 70 years old.In all the surveyed homes heating was provided by means of oil or natural gas ﬁred boilers. Although these boilers useelectric powered burners, the electrical consumption of theseburners is very small and has not been considered in the study.About 50% of the surveyed homes use supplementary electricheaters, and 76% have electric showers. The other installationsin the surveyed houses which consume electricity are dividedbroadly into three categories: lighting, kitchen and entertain-ment. The lighting installations are as follows: 43% of households have halogen bulbs, 52% ﬂuorescent tubes and95% standard bulbs (only 5% energy saving bulbs). Thekitchens are as follows: all households use electric cookers,microwave ovens; 90% have washing machines; 10% washer-driers, 52%, tumble driers, 52% dishwashers. Each householdhas at least one fridge or fridge-freezer and 50% of thehouseholds have also separated freezers. In terms of entertain-ment each home has on average 2.7 TV sets, 1.5 videorecorders, 1.4 DVD players, 1 stereo systems, 0.8 gamesconsoles and 1 computer.
3. Electricity measurement
Electricity measurements were made using a half-hour loadmeter installed in series with the normal utility meter in eachhome between December 2003 and February 2004. Each meterhad a mobile telephone unit that enabled remote downloadingof stored electricity average load in kW during half-hourperiods once every month until the end of September 2005.Remote access software was used to ‘connect with’ the mobileunits within the metering system and data was downloaded viamodems; data thus collected was transferred to text format foranalysis.The average electricity consumption was calculated byaveraging consumption for each day of the year. Average, baseand peak electricity consumptions were measured. Base-leveluse is electricity consumed when occupants are inactive, andpeak use shows the consumption at times of greatest activity.
4. Household energy use and ﬂoor area
Seasonal variations in monthly total electricity consumptionwere investigated. Where monthly data was available for morethan 1 year, the values were averaged to present a single year’sdata. A range of consumptions was observed in the monthlydata; some homes consumed more than 800 kWh in a month,others never exceeded 200 kWh in any month. Winterelectricity consumption was 25–90% more than that of summeruse.Dwellings in the UK can generally be divided into fourtypes: detached, semi-detached, terraced and bungalows.Generally, detached, semi-detached and terraced houses arecomprised of two ﬂoors; the lower ﬂoor comprises of kitchensand living areas and the upper ﬂoors, bedrooms and bathrooms.Bungalows have only one ﬂoor. Although these dwellings varyin size (i.e. ﬂoor area) and method of construction and ﬁnish,annual electricity consumption depends on size of dwelling interms of total ﬂoor area. Generally householders’ ability toafford larger property (i.e. larger ﬂoor area) is linked todisposable income. The latter means that householders willhave more electricity consuming appliances and use them moreextensively. The ﬂoor areas of the houses represented in thestudy are as follows:
, 40.7%; 90–115 m
, 29.6%; 116–165 m
, 18.5%; and
, 11.1%.Fig. 1shows averageannual electricity consumption for these houses as a function of ﬂoor area. The ﬁgure clearly shows the dependence of electricity consumption on ﬂoor area; this can be representedin the correlation in Eq.(1)
is average annual energy consumption (kWh) and
isﬂoor area (m
Fig. 1. Annual total electricity consumption as a function of ﬂoor area.
Y.G. Yohanis et al./Energy and Buildings 40 (2008) 1053–1059