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Table Of Contents

1.1. Historical Perspective
1.2. Discovery
1.3. Appearance
1.4. Statistics
1.5. Importance
1.6. Brightness
1.7. Main Characteristics
1.8. Spacecraft Encounters with Comets
1.9. An Overall View
Problems
References
2.1. Orbital Elements
2.2. Orbit in Space
2.2.1. Relevant equations
2.2.2. Orbital elements from position and velocity
2.2.3. Orbital elements from observations
Physical Aspects
3.1. Black Body Radiation
3.2. Perfect Gas Law
3.3. Dissociative Equilibrium
3.4. Doppler Shift
3.5. Spectroscopy
3.5.1. Atomic spectroscopy
3.5.2. Molecular spectroscopy
3.5.3. Chemical subgroups
3.6. Isotopic Effect
3.7. Franck-Condon Factors
3.8. Intensity of Emitted Lines
3.9. Boltzmann Distribution
3.10. Λ-Doubling
3.11. Photochemistry of Water
3.12. Silicate
3.13. Annealing
3.14. Carbon
3.15. Solar Radiation
3.16. Solar Wind
4.1. Main Characteristics
4.2. Forbidden Transitions
4.3. Line–to–Continuum Ratio
Spectra of Coma
5.1. Fluorescence Process
5.1.1. Rotational structure
5.1.2. Vibrational structure
5.1.3. Comparison with observations
5.1.4. Case of C2 molecule
5.1.5. Prompt emission lines of OH
5.1.6. Molecules other than diatomic
5.1.7. OH radio lines
5.1.8. Oxygen lines
5.1.9. Forbidden transitions
5.1.10. Molecular band polarization
5.2. Excitation Temperature
5.2.1. Rotational temperature
5.2.2. Vibrational temperature
5.3. Abundances of Heavy Elements
5.4. Isotopic Abundances
5.5. Summary
Gas Production Rates in Coma
6.1. Theoretical Models
6.1.1. From the total luminosity
6.1.2. From surface brightness distribution
6.1.3. From number densities
6.1.4. Semi-empirical photometric theory
6.2. Results
6.2.1. OH and H
6.2.2. H2O, H2
6.2.3. CN, C2, C3, NH
6.2.4. CH, NH2
6.2.5. CO, CO2
6.2.6. CS, S2
6.2.7. Ions
6.2.8. Complex molecules
6.2.9. O, C, N, S
6.3. Analysis of Hydrogen Observations
6.3.1. Analysis of Lyman α measurements
6.3.2. Analysis of Hα observations
6.4. Related Studies
6.4.1. Gas-phase chemistry in the coma
6.4.2. In situ mass spectrometer for ions
6.4.3. Temperature and velocity of the coma gas
6.5. Parent Molecules
6.6. Chemical Diversity
6.7. Summary
7.1. Dynamics
7.2. Anti-tail
8.1.1. Efficiency factors
8.1.2. Albedo
8.1.3. Scattered intensity
8.1.4. Polarization
8.2. Approximate Expressions
8.3. Computation of Cross Sections
8.4. Results
8.5. Particles of Other Types
8.6. Optical Constants
The Nature of Dust Particles
9.1. Visible Continuum
9.1.1. Albedo
9.1.2. Phase function
9.1.3. Dust production rate from continuum
9.1.4. Dust production from A(θ)fρ
9.2. Polarization
9.2.1. Linear polarization
9.2.2. Circular polarization
9.3. Grain Sizes
9.4. Infrared Measurements
9.4.1. Dust production from infrared observations
9.4.2. Anti-tail
9.5. Spectral Feature
9.5.1. Silicate signature
9.5.2. Mineralogy of dust particles
9.5.3. The C-H stretch feature
9.5.4. Ice signature
9.6. Properties Derived from Direct Measurements
9.7. Radiation Pressure Effects
9.8. Summary
10.1. Evidence for the Solar Wind
10.2. Dynamical Aberration
10.3. Theoretical Considerations
10.3.1. Comparison with observations
10.4. Instabilities and Waves
10.5. Acceleration of Cometary Ions
10.6. Large Scale Structures
10.6.1. Tail rays or streamers
10.6.2. Knots or condensations
10.6.3. Oscillatory structure
10.6.4. “Swan-like” feature
10.6.5. Bend in the tail
10.6.6. Disconnection events
10.7. X-rays
10.8. Summary
11.1. Morphology
11.2. Theory of Vapourization
11.3. Outbursts
11.4. Albedo and Radius
11.5. Mass, Density and Surface Gravity
11.6. Rotation
11.7. Nucleus Composition
11.8. Mass Loss
11.9. Structure
11.10. Non-gravitational Forces
11.11. Ortho to Para Ratio of Molecules
11.12. Binary Systems
11.13. Summary
12.1. Evidence for the Oort Cloud
12.2. Evolution and Properties of Oort Cloud
12.2.1. Short period comets
12.3. Origin of the Oort Cloud
12.4. Taxonomy
12.5. Summary
13.1. Asteroids
13.2. Meteorites
13.3. Meteor Streams
13.4. Particles Collected at High Altitudes
13.5. Primordial Material
13.6. Chemical Evolution
13.7. Terrestrial Water
13.8. Impact of Outside Bodies
13.9. Overview
Problems and Prospects
14.1. Epilogue
14.2. Future studies
Index
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Physics of Comets 3rd ed. - K. Swamy

Physics of Comets 3rd ed. - K. Swamy

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Published by Catalina Gucianu
Physics of Comets 3rd ed. - K. Swamy
Physics of Comets 3rd ed. - K. Swamy

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Published by: Catalina Gucianu on Jan 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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