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Section 1983 Outline - 9th Circuit

Section 1983 Outline - 9th Circuit

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Published by Umesh Heendeniya
Legal Documents and How-to Articles that provide information and caselaw on how to bring legal actions against law enforcement and corrections officers/agencies successfully.
Legal Documents and How-to Articles that provide information and caselaw on how to bring legal actions against law enforcement and corrections officers/agencies successfully.

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Published by: Umesh Heendeniya on Jan 23, 2013
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07/26/2013

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United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth CircuitOffice of Staff Attorneys
Section 1983 Outline
 Originally Written in 2002By Kent BrintnallUpdated Summer 2011By Office of Staff AttorneysUnited States Court of Appealsfor the Ninth Circuit
This outline is not intended to express the views or opinions of the Ninth Circuit,and it may not be cited to or by the courts of this circuit.
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many thanks to the staff attorneys and others who have reviewed sections of this outline, andhave contributed valuable comments and corrections.
Corrections and comments should be e-mailed to Jennifer Rich at jennifer_rich@ca9.uscourts.gov
 
 
 
i
Table of Contents
I.
 
GENERAL § 1983 PRINCIPLES ............................................................... 1
 
A.
 
Elements of a § 1983 Action ........................................................................ 1
 
1.
 
Person ............................................................................................................ 2
 
a.
 
States ........................................................................................................ 2
 
b.
 
Territories ................................................................................................. 2
 
c.
 
Local Governmental Units ....................................................................... 2
 
(1)
 
Status as Persons ................................................................................ 2
 
(2)
 
Theory of Liability ............................................................................. 3
 
(a)
 
Municipal Policy ............................................................................... 4
 
(b)
 
Municipal Custom ............................................................................ 5
 
(c)
 
Municipality’s Failure to Train
......................................................... 6
 
(d)
 
Pleading Standard ............................................................................. 7
 
d.
 
Agencies ................................................................................................... 7
 
e.
 
State Officials ........................................................................................... 9
 
(1)
 
Official Capacity ................................................................................ 9
 
(2)
 
Personal Capacity.............................................................................10
 
(3)
 
Determining Capacity ......................................................................10
 
f.
 
Federal Officials .....................................................................................11
 
2.
 
Acting under Color of State Law ................................................................11
 
a.
 
General Principles ..................................................................................11
 
b.
 
Applications ...........................................................................................12
 
(1)
 
State Employees ...............................................................................12
 
(2)
 
Prison Officials ................................................................................12
 
(3)
 
Prison Physicians .............................................................................13
 
(4)
 
Public Defenders ..............................................................................13
 
(5)
 
Private Parties ..................................................................................14
 
(6)
 
Federal Employees ...........................................................................15
 
3.
 
Deprivation of a Right .................................................................................15
 
a.
 
Rights Guaranteed by the Constitution ..................................................15
 
b.
 
Rights Guaranteed by Federal Statutes ..................................................15
 
c.
 
Rights Guaranteed by State Law ...........................................................17
 
B.
 
State-of-Mind Requirement .......................................................................17
 
C.
 
Causation ....................................................................................................17
 
1.
 
General Principles .......................................................................................17
 
2.
 
Supervisory Liability ...................................................................................18
 
3.
 
Local Governmental Unit Liability .............................................................19
 
4.
 
Relationship to Relief Sought .....................................................................19
 

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