Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Feature-length story on Kue Petitions

Feature-length story on Kue Petitions

Ratings: (0)|Views: 117|Likes:
Published by Kathryn Wagner
Feature story for MANA Magazine
Feature story for MANA Magazine

More info:

Published by: Kathryn Wagner on Jan 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/23/2013

pdf

text

original

 
JULY/AUGUST 2012 
MANA MAGAZINE
49
 AFTER SPENDING A CENTURY TUCKED AWAY IN AN ARCHIVE, THE K U‘E PETITIONS WERE LOCATED. BEARING WITNESS TO THE TREMENDOUS EFFORT HAWAIIANS MADE TO AVOID ANNEXATION BY THE UNITED STATES, THE DOCUMENTS ARE PROVING INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT.
 
BY KATHRYN DRURY WAGNER
S
ometimes the truth will set you ree. And sometimes the truth is trapped in a box, curled up at theedges, waiting or you to set it ree. So it has been with the Kū‘ē Petitions.In 1897, “the United States, ounded upon the belie that a just government can exist only by the con-sent o the governed, is … preparing to take a nation’s lie with all the complacent assurance o an oldtime stage villain,” reported Miriam Michelson in a piece published in the
San Francisco Call 
on Sept.30 that year. “For Hawai‘i has not asked or annexation. There are 100,000 people on the islands. O thesenot 3 percent have declared or annexation. To the natives the loss o nationality is hateul, aberrant.”Later in her article, Michelson writes, “At Honolulu, I had asked a prominent white man to give me someidea o the native Hawaiian’s character. ‘They won’t resent anything,’ he said, contemptuously. ‘They haven’ta grain o ambition. … They care or nothing except extremely simple and easy living. They have no perse-verance, they have no backbone. They’re unt.’”
The Kū‘ē Petitions show otherwise.
DISCOVERY
In 1996, graduate student Noenoe Silva was about a year into her dissertation work when she saw a smallpicture o a page o the Kū‘ē Petitions in a booklet, a guide to an exhibit that had been held in the smallgallery space at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. On a visit there, she went specically to nd thispetition, but says, “I didn’t know how big it was or how important it was.”The documents Silva tracked down that day are printed in Hawaiian and English and titled, “Palapala HoopiiKue Hoohui Aina,” or “Petition Protesting Annexation.” They’re 556 pages o signatures gathered in the allo 1897, and presented to the U.S. Congress as proo that an overwhelming majority o Hawai‘i’s citizenry,both Native Hawaiian and non, were opposed to annexation to the U.S.
48
MANA MAGAZINE
JULY/AUGUST 2012
TESTIMONYOFTHOUSANDS
PETITIONS COURTESYBISHOP MUSEUM ARCHIVES
 
JULY/AUGUST 2012 
MANA MAGAZINE
5150
MANA MAGAZINE
JULY/AUGUST 2012
They reect the work o three organizations, the Hui Aloha ‘Āina (divided into two groups, one or menand one or women) and the Hui Kālai‘āina. Fanning out in a massive petition drive in support o QueenLili‘uokalani, the Hui Aloha ‘Āina gathered more than 21,269 signatures, and the Hui Kālai‘āina got 17,000signatures, totaling around 38,000 names.According to Silva’s book,
 Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism
, “Even i some people signed both petitions, the total number is impressive given that the population o KanakaMaoli and mixed-blood persons reported by the Hawaiian Commission census or that year was 39,000.”Now a Ph.D. and proessor in the Political Science Department o the University o Hawai‘i at Mānoa,Silva says the petitions were or Hawaiians “a way to try to be heard by Americans. The American presswas receiving regular, very racist and disparaging dispatches rom Honolulu … about who was in avoro annexation. Really lying, pretending there wasn’t any resistance.” Silva also connected with her ownamily history, as she ound the name o her great-great-great-grandmother among the signers o thepetition.“The inormation was always there and no one was looking,” says Lynette Cruz, an assistant proessor o an-thropology at Hawai‘i Pacic University and president o the Ka Lei Maile Ali‘i Hawaiian Civic Club. “Noenoewas paying attention. The results have been inormation and a proound connection. We had been indoctri-nated with someone else’s history, until these came along. These names belong to us; they are not oreign.”
THE DOCUMENTS, UNVEILED
S
ilva explains how the rst display o the petitions, in 1998, came to be. “Nālani Minton got a bunch o people together at the Bishop Museum,” says Silva. “The Bishop Museum had allocated no moneyto observe the 100th year since annexation, but it became clear during our meeting that theyneeded to do something.”The museum was able to get some unding and media attention, and photocopies o all o the 556pages o the Kū‘ē Petitions went on display at the Bishop Museum, Silva says. The National Archives wouldnot permit the museum to display the individual pages o the originals, Silva says, but did send the docu-ments, and allowed them to be shown in stacks. Copies were also shown at the state Capitol. The originalswere returned, and they live in the Records o the U.S. Senate, Record Group 46, at the National Archivesand Records Administration, publication number M1897.“I believe the Kū‘ē Petitions carry the mana o our ancestors that embodies our rights o and to sel-determination,” says Nālani Minton via an email interview. In the recovered evidence, “the power o thepeople and our love or our homeland cannot be overestimated and may set precedence or other indig-enous peoples and nations who have endured similar experiences.” Minton has presented the petitions toaudiences around the world, such as at Pacic regional orums, American Indian orums, the Hague PeaceAppeals and the Indigenous Law Institute.
“People still make a pointo telling me,” what thediscovery o the petitionsmeant to them, says UHproessor Noenoe Silva,Ph.D. “It’s been prettysignifcant.”
PHOTO BY AARON K. YOSHINO
01/17/189304/04/1893
Queen Lili‘uokalaniis orced to yield herauthority by a groupo businessmen, whoorm their own govern-ment. Acting withoutthe permission o theU.S. State Department,John Stevens, the U.S.Minister to Hawai‘i, rec-ognizes this governmentand declares Hawai‘ia protectorate. Theprovisional governmentasks outgoing PresidentBenjamin Harrisonand Congress to annexHawai‘i, and Harrisonsends a treaty to theSenate to be conrmed.Grover Cleveland isinaugurated president.Respecting the protestso Queen Lili‘uokalaniand her HawaiianKingdom envoy, hewithdraws the treatyrom the Senate’sconsideration andappoints a commis-sioner to investigatethe overthrow, which isdetermined to be illegal.The provisionalgovernment proclaimsa new Republic o Hawai‘i, which isocially recognized bythe United States.Annexation supporterPresident WilliamMcKinley is inaugurated.
189404/04/1897
HISTORICAL
EVENTS
They are 556 pages of signaturesgathered in the fall of 1897, presentedto the U.S. Congress
as proo that anoverwhelming majority o Hawai‘i’s citizenry,both Native Hawaiian and non, were opposedto annexation to the U.S.
 
JULY/AUGUST 2012 
MANA MAGAZINE
5352
MANA MAGAZINE
JULY/AUGUST 2012
A co-publisher o the Kū‘ēPetitions, Nālani Minton.Minton is the director o the‘Ike Ao Pono program at theUH School o Nursing,helping graduate more than150 native Hawaiian nurses.
With the return o the petitions, Minton writes, “The names o many unknown and orgotten heroes wererecovered. Not only the prominent organizers o the petition process, such as Joseph Nawahi, Emma AimaNawahi, Kuaihelani Campbell and other leaders … but also every person who signed the petitions, whosedescendants now know and have proo o their great eforts and heroism. Many extraordinary events havetaken place since their return and many tears have been wept by descendants who have seen the signa-tures o their loved ones, perhaps or the rst time, and o others they never knew who tried to protecttheir destiny and ours. From the groupings o the signers on every island, we also now have a map o wherepeople were living and, sometimes, how they were related.”
REPUBLISHING THE DOCUMENTS
M
inton and Silva compiled the documents in a book orm,
The Hui Aloha ‘Āina Anti-Annexation Peti-tions
, 1897-1898. It’s viewable online at the UHM library site.The petitions also became available in an island-by-island ormat, via a company specializing in Ha-waiian Kingdom-era books, Pae ‘Āina. It made purchasing sections—such as only Maui, or O‘ahu—more accessible, according to Nai‘a Lewis, whose amily ran the company. While response to thebooks was very positive, she says via an email interview, “It was very challenging to reprint historical docu-ments. It’s not like you can easily have mass [amounts] bound in a cost-efective way. … We remain hopeulthat one day we are able to provide these reprints again, but or now we are being patient and waiting tosee what the uture holds.”
PHOTO BY AARON K. YOSHINO
A treaty o annexa-tion is signed betweenMcKinley and threerepresentatives o theRepublic o Hawai‘iand presented to theSenate to be ratied.Queen Lili‘uokalani lesa diplomatic protest.Hoping to stopthe annexation, theHui Aloha ‘Āina andHui Kālai‘āina conductmassive petition drives.Delegates arrive inWashington, D.C., withthe 556 pages o petitionsignatures, which weregiven to the SenateDec. 9. Ultimately, onlythe Hui Aloha ‘Āina ver-sion o the petition waspresented, because theHawaiian groups did notwish to appear dividedin their goals. Over thenext two months, thedelegates convince mostsenators not to vote orannexation, successullydeeating the treaty.The U.S. declares war onSpain, and wants Hawai‘ias a naval and troopbase to ght the Spanishin the Philippines andon Guam. By July, the“Newlands Resolution”unilaterally annexesHawai‘i.
06/189704/189812/6/1897FALL 1897
Many extraordinary events havetaken place since their return
andmany tears have been wept by descen-dants who have seen the signatures o their loved ones, perhaps or the frsttime, and o others they never knew whotried to protect their destiny and ours.
The historical signicance o signing apetition is not lost on Clyde Namu‘o,executive director o the Native HawaiianRoll Commission. Hawai‘i’s Act 195 o 2011acknowledged Hawaiians as the state’s only indigenous people, and required that acertied roll o Hawaiians be taken.“As the commission began to deliberate,this seemed very exclusive,” says Namu‘o.“Gov. Waihe‘e talked about the Kū‘ē Petitionsand how the people who signed that werenot necessarily Hawaiians, but it providedthem an opportunity to provide support. We wanted to re-create that situation here, where we satisy the provisions o Act 195 but also use the opportunity to build unity among all people o Hawai‘i.”The commission decided on a two-partsolution. For people who want to support what Hawaiians are doing and not interestedin helping orm a government, they can signa petition, whether they are Hawaiian or not,supporting the idea that the sovereignty o the Hawaiians was never relinquished.The second part is a roll o Hawaiians whomeet certain requirements, set out by Act 195:1. Be an individual who is a descendant o theaboriginal peoples who, prior to 1778, occu-pied and exercised sovereignty in the Hawai-ian Islands, the area that now constitutes thestate o Hawai‘i; or an individual who is oneo the indigenous, native people o Hawai‘iand who was eligible in 1921 or the programsauthorized by the Hawaiian Homes Commis-sion Act, 1920, or a direct lineal descendanto that individual;2. Maintain a signicant cultural, social orcivic connection to the Native Hawaiiancommunity;3. Wish to participate in the organization o the Native Hawaiian governing entity; and4. Must be 18 years o age or older.To get on that list, people must ll out anenrollment orm, a process slated to kick o the third week o July and run or 12 months,says Namu‘o. “We will turn over whatever we have and whatever has been conrmedas part o this list to the Gov. Abercrombie.”People can sign up in person at outreachevents, or online. “Our strategy is to getas many sponsors as possible, such as theOfce o Hawaiian Aairs and KamehamehaSchools,” he says, both or outreach and oreasier verication o people who have already proven their ancestry.Documents that are acceptable proo o an-cestry include birth certicates, death certi-cates, baptismal certicates, church records,entries in Bibles and personal afdavits.The list and petition will both be turnedover to the governor. “Ater that, it’s up tothe Native Hawaiian community to takethis to the next stage,” says Namu‘o. “Mostpeople would agree that it’s to have a consti-tutional convention and elect delegatesto attend the convention.”
 THE NATIVE HAWAIIAN
ROLL COMMISSION
continues on page 54 >>

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->