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Graphic of fracking

Graphic of fracking

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Published by Chad Whitehead
explains fracking
explains fracking

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Chad Whitehead on Jan 23, 2013
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03/10/2013

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Engineering & Technology
 
January 2012
 
www.EandTmagazine.com
10
News
Briefing
TheGraphic
Dll o shal as could cut y pcs ad lsslac o mpots, say ts backs, but ctcs wa that th pocss ca t ath tmos ad pollut wat suppls.
Fracking 
Fracking – g
ame-changer in world energy markets
123
Sources: Ground Water Protection Council, Exxon Mobil, Austin Exploration Limited
Hydraulic fracturing – also known as “fracking” – is a two-phase process to extract natural gas fromprehistoric shalebeds thousands of metres below ground. The first phase includes drilling the wells,the second uses high-pressure blasts of water and sand-laden gel to fracture shale rock and release gas
DRILLING PHASEFRACKING PHASEDrilling rig:
Time to drilleach well from
spud 
point of breaking ground –to
total depth (TD) 
is aboutthree to six weeks dependingon depth and length ofhorizontal well. (Record for4,000-metre well is 7.5 days)
Hydraulic fracturing fluids:
Water, sandand additives are pumped at extremely highpressure – over 100 bar, about 1,500 poundsper square inch (1,050kg/sq m) – down wellbore
Continual pumping:
Increases pressure of frac fluids in well,breaking rocks apart. Fracking continuesuntil rocks are cracked to desiredlength, about 200-300m
Injection:
Typically requires20,000 cubic metresof water – equivalentto 500 tankers – plus1,800 tonnes ofsand, blended with100 tonnes ofadditives topromote gelling
4
Back-flushing:
Frac wastewater pumpedout of well for disposalor re-use
5
Gas flow:
Sand remains,holding fractures open toallow gas to flow into well.
Fracking process takesup to 10 days
6
Production:
Wellhead and pipelineremain. Single well can producethousands of cubic metres ofgas per day for 20-40 years
Frac fluid:95% water4.5% sand0.5%additivesShale layer:
Rock formations are1,000-2,500m underground
Kick-off point:
Drill turnshorizontal, roughly 150mabove shale. Horizontalsection extends up to 3,000m
Wellbore:
Steel pipesurrounded by cement
Jet perforation:
Holespunched through wellbore,cement and adjacent rockby shaped explosivecharges – similar to thoseused in anti-armourammunition
Perforation gun assembly 
Aquifer:
Water-bearingrock is at average depthof 100 metres
Fresh water protection:
Three sets of steel casingsare cemented into placeto prevent accidentalpollution of drinkingwater aquifers
Wellbore 11.4cm Sand truck Blender Frac pump Well head Pipeline to storage tanks Surface casing 24.5cm Cement Gas-bearing shale rock 
End of drilling:
Wellbore clearedof debris and drillingrig removed
Reserve pit:
Usedto store drillingmud andcuttings
Water tanker 
 
Hydraulic fracturing – also known as “fracking” – is a two-phase process to extract natural gas fromprehistoric shalebeds thousands of metres below ground. The first phase includes drilling the wells,the second uses high-pressure blasts of water and sand-laden gel to fracture shale rock and release gas
DRILLING PHASEFRACKING PHASE
Drilling rig: Time to drilleach well from spud – point of breaking ground – to total depth (TD) is aboutthree to six weeks dependingon depth and length of horizontal well. (Record for4,000m well is 7.5 days)Hydraulic fracturing fluids: Water, sandand additives are pumped at extremely highpressure – over 100 bar – down wellboreContinual pumping:Increases pressure of frac fluids in well,breaking rocks apart. Fracking continuesuntil rocks are cracked to desiredlength, about 200-300mInjection:Typically requires20,000 cubic metresof water – equivalentto 500 tankers – plus1,800t of sand,blended with100t of additives topromote gellingBack-flushing:Frac wastewater pumpedout of well for disposalor re-useGas flow:Sand remains,holding fractures open toallow gas to flow into well.Fracking process takesup to 10 daysProduction: Wellhead and pipelineremain. Single well can producethousands of cubic metres of gas per day for 20-40 yearsFrac fluid:95% water4.5% sand0.5%additivesShale layer:Rock formations are1,000-2,500m undergroundKick-off point: Drill turnshorizontal, roughly 150mabove shale. Horizontalsection extends up to 3,000mWellbore: Steel pipesurrounded by cement Jet perforation: Holespunched through wellbore,cement and adjacent rockby shaped explosivecharges – similar to thoseused in anti-armourammunitionPerforationgun assembly Aquifer: Water-bearingrock is at average depthof 100mFresh water protection:Three sets of steel casingsare cemented into placeto prevent accidentalpollution of drinking water aquifersWellbore11.4cmSandtruckBlenderFrac pumpWell headPipeline tostoragetanksSurface casing24.5cmCementGas-bearingshale rockEnd of drilling:Wellbore clearedof debris and drillingrig removedReserve pit: Usedto store drillingmud andcuttingsWater tanker
The game-changer in world energy markets?
   g   r   o   u   n   D   w   a   t   e   r   p   r   o   t   e   c   t   i   o   n   c   o   u   n   c   i   l ,   e   x   x   o   n   m   o   B   i   l ,   a   u   s   t   i   n   e   x   p   l   o   r   a   t   i   o   n   l   t   D ,   g   r   a   p   h   i   c   n   e   w   s

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