The authors would like to thank the ollowing individuals or providing analysis, editorialassistance, and review or the report: Mark Funkhouser, Director, at the Governing Insti-tute; Genee Unger, Project Manager, at Pew Center on the States; Deirdre Cummings,Legislative Director, at MASSPIRG; Ben Berkowitz, CEO, and Kevin Donohue, Com-munity Manager, at SeeClickFix; and Laurenellen McCann, National Policy Manager,at Sunlight Foundation. Additionally, we wish to thank the public ocials rom the 25cities who took time to provide eedback on our initial inventory o their online spendingand service request transparency. Thanks also to Hailey Witt, Field Director, at IllinoisPIRG or contributing to the content o this report, and to Tony Dutzik and ElizabethRidlington at Frontier Group or their editorial assistance. This report is made possible through the generous support o the Ford Foundation. The authors bear any responsibility or actual errors. The recommendations are those o U.S. PIRG Education Fund. The views expressed in this report are those o the authorsand do not necessarily refect the views o our unders or those who provided review.2013 U.S. PIRG Education Fund. Some Rights Reserved. This work is licensed undera Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 unported License. To view the terms o this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us. You are ree to display, reproduce, and distribute this work in its entirety or non-com-mercial purposes, with proper attribution. To attribute this work, please credit U.S. PIRG Education Fund and provide a link to www.uspirgedund.org. With public debate around important issues oten dominated by special interests pursuingtheir own narrow agendas, U.S. PIRG Education Fund oers an independent voice that works on behal o the public interest. U.S. PIRG Education Fund, a 501(c)(3) organization, works to protect consumers and promote good government. We investigate problems,crat solutions, educate the public, and oer Americans meaningul opportunities or civicengagement. For more inormation, please visit our website at www.uspirgedund.org.Frontier Group conducts research and policy analysis to support a cleaner, healthier andmore democratic society. Our mission is to inject accurate inormation and compellingideas into public policy debates at the local, state and ederal levels. For more inormationabout Frontier Group, please visit our website at www.rontiergroup.org.
Cover Photos: rom let to right, top to bottom, New York: Eva Abreu, Flickr; Chicago: Dori, WikimediaCommons; San Francisco: Selena N. B. H., Flickr; Baltimore: Steelplug, Wikimedia Commons: Cincinnati:Wikimedia Commons; Denver: Jerey Beall, Flickr; San Antonio: Ken Kinder, Wikimedia Commons;Washington, DC: JamesDeMers, Pixabay; Orlando: Scott Akerman, Flickr; Pittsburgh: Jim Orsini, Flickr;Seattle: David Herrera, Flickr; Miami: John Spade, Flickr; Houston: little black spot on the sun today, Flickr; Kansas City (MO): Stuart Seeger, Flickr; Philadelphia: Joe Mazzola, Flickr; San Diego: Tomcio77, Flickr; Los Angeles: Todd Jones, Flickr; Dallas: David Herrera, Flickr; Phoenix: Bravo1, WikimediaCommons; Las Vegas: Dour Kerr, Flickr; Tampa: a200/a77Wells, Flickr; Minneapolis: Doug Kerr, Flickr; Riverside: Qwerty510, Wikimedia Commons; Boston: Nelson48, Wikimedia Commons; Portland (OR):Stuart Seeger, Flickr; Atlanta: Payton Chung, Flickr; Detroit: Bernt Rostad, Flickr; St. Louis: cooper. gary, Flickr, www.fickr.com/photos/gtcooper25/7561943614 (link to photo provided under photographer’s request); Sacramento: Nick Ares, Flickr; Cleveland: Wikimedia Commons. Layout: To the Point Publications, www.tothepointpublications.com