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Lecture 9

# Lecture 9

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Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali
Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

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06/30/2014

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College of Information Technology, University of Babylon, IraqSamaher_hussein@yahoo.com
ByDr. Samaher Hussein Ali
LECTURE NOTES ON PUBLIC- KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY
One-Way Functions and
ElGamal System)
Department of SoftwareThe University of Babylon
6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali
One-Way Functions (OWF)
Notes of Lecture 9
6 November 2012
A
one-way function
is a function that is “easy” to compute and “difficult” toreverse
Examples of OWF that we’ll use in this lecture to explain public-key systems:
Multiplication of two primes
Modular exponentiation
OWF: Multiplying two Primes
Multiplication of two prime numbers is
believed

to be a one-way function.
We say
believed

because nobody has been able to
prove

that it is hard tofactorise.
Given two primes numbers
p
and
q
It’s easy to find
n=p.q
However, starting from n, it’s difficult to find
p
and
q

Is it prime factorization?

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali
OWF: Modular Exponentaition
Notes of Lecture 9
6 November 2012
The process of
exponentiation

just means raising numbers to a power.
Raising
a
to the power
b
, normally denoted
a
b
just means multiplying
a
by itself
b
times. In other words:
a
b
=
a
a
a
x … x
a

Modular exponentiation
means computing
a
b
modulo some other number
n
. Wetend to write this as
a
b
mod n
.
Modular exponentiation is “easy”.