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Stuff You Must Know

Stuff You Must Know

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Published by: crimsonarrow on Feb 12, 2009
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10/09/2013

 
Stuff you MUST know cold for AP Calculus!
Note: Letters like
a
,
b
,
c
,
,
m
, and
n
are traditionally used to represent constants.Letters like
 f 
,
g
,
h
,
u
,
v
,
 x
, and
 y
and traditionally used to represent variables or functions.
Basic Derivatives
( )
1
=
nn
nx xdx
 
( )
x xdx
cossin
=
 
( )
x xdx
sincos
=
 
( )
x xdx
2
sectan
=
 
( )
x xdx
2
csccot
=
 
( )
x x xdx
tansecsec
=
 
( )
x x xdx
cotcsccsc
=
 
( )
 x xdx
1ln
=
 
( )
x x
eedx
=
 
More Derivatives
( )
21
11sin
 x xdx
=
 
( )
21
11cos
 x xdx
=
 
( )
21
11tan
 x xdx
+=
 
( )
21
11cot
 x xdx
+=
 
( )
11sec
21
=
 x x xdx
 
( )
11csc
21
=
 x x xdx
 
( )
aaadx
x x
ln
=
 
( )
a x xdx
a
ln1log
=
 
If 
a function is differentiable,
then
it is continuous.
Definitions of Derivative
( ) ( )
h x f h x f 
h
+
0
lim
 
( ) ( )
c xc f  x f 
c x
lim
 
Differentiation Rules
Chain RuleIf 
( ) ( )( )
 xhg x f 
=
, then
( ) ( )( ) ( )
 xh xhg x f 
=
.OR
dxdududydxdy
=
 Product Rule
( )
dxdvudxduvuvdx
+=
 Quotient Rule
2
vvuuv vudx
=     
 
“PLUS A CONSTANT!”The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
( ) ( ) ( )
abdx x f 
ba
=
∫ 
 where
( ) ( )
 x f  x
=
 
Corollary to the FTC
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
 xg xg f dt  f  dx
xga
=
∫ 
 
Intermediate Value Theorem
If function
 f 
is continuous for all
 x
inthe closed interval
[ ]
ba
,
, and
 y
is anumber between
( )
a f 
and
( )
b f 
, thenthere is a number
c x
=
in
( )
ba
,
forwhich
( )
yc f 
=
.
Rolle’s Theorem
If 
 f 
is differentiable for all values of 
 x
 in the open interval
( )
ba
,
, and
 f 
iscontinuous at
a x
=
and at
b x
=
, and
( ) ( )
0
==
b f a f 
,then there is at least one number
c x
=
 in
( )
ba
,
such that
( )
0
=
c f 
.
Mean Value Theorem
If 
 f 
is differentiable for all values of 
 x
 in the open interval
( )
ba
,
, and
 f 
iscontinuous at
a x
=
and
b x
=
, thenthere is at least one number
c x
=
in
( )
ba
,
such that
( )( ) ( )
aba f b f  c f 
=
 
Trapezoidal Rule
( ) ( )
[
( ) ( ) ( )
]
nnba
 x f  x f  x f   x f nabdx x f 
++++      =
∫ 
110
2221
L
 
Distance, Velocity, and Acceleration
If distance, velocity and accelerationare represented by
s
,
v
, and
a
,respectively, then
22
dt sdt dva
==
and
dt dsv
=
.
∫ ∫ 
==
1010
inchangeinchange
dt vsdt av
 
l'Hôpital’s Rule
If 
( )( )
or00lim
 xg x f 
a x
 then
( )( )( )( )
 xg x f  xg x f 
a xa x
=
limlim
 

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