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green chemistry

green chemistry

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Published by Nitin Chandwani
green chemistry
green chemistry

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Published by: Nitin Chandwani on Jan 26, 2013
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Green Chemistry
Bio diesel and Bio petrol also study extraction process of Bio diesal
SUBMITTED BY : ABHYODAYA SIDDHARTHA
 
GUIDED BY :
 
CLASS : XII PCM
 
YEAR : 2010-2011
 
ROLL NO. :___________ 
 
 
SCHOOL : NEW WAY SENIOR SECONDRY SCHOOL
 
Certified to be the bonafide work done by
 
 
Master. Abhyodaya siddhartha of class XII
B
 
in the CHEMISTRY LAB during the year 2010-2011Date _____________.Submitted for
CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDRY EDUCATION
 Examination held in CHEMISTRY LAB at NEW WAY SENIOR SECONDRY SCHOOL.
EXAMINER 
 
DATE : ___________ 
 
SEAL
 I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentor
Miss.
, for her vital support, guidance and encouragement
without which this project would not havecome forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to my old chemistry teacher
Mr.DINESHSHUKLA
for his support during the making of this project.
INDEX
 
S.No.
 
Contents
 
Pg.No.
 
I
Objective
5
 
II
Introduction to green chemistry
6
 
III
Principals of green chemistry
7
 
IV
BIODIESEL: Using renewable resorces
10
 
V
ACTIVITY 1: Making biodiesel
12
 
VI
ACTIVITY 2: Testing biodiesel
14
 
VII
ACTIVITY 3: Potential for biofuels
16
 
VIII
Biopetrol
23
 
IX
Conclution
30
 
X
Bibliography
31
 
 
The Objective of this project is to study GREEN CHEMISTRY- Bio diesel and Bio petrol also study
 
extraction process of Bio desial.
 
INTRODUCTION TO GREEN CHEMISTY
 .Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with developing processes and products toreduce or eliminate hazardous substances. One of the goals of green chemistry is to prevent pollutionat its source, as opposed to dealing with pollution after it has occurred.
Principles of Green Chemistry
 
1.
 
Prevention
 It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created.
2.
 
Atom Economy
 Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in theprocess into the final product.
3.
 
Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses
 Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances thatpossess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
4.
 
Designing Safer Chemicals
 Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity.
5.
 
Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
 The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessarywherever possible and innocuous when used.
6.
 
Design for Energy Efficiency
 Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental andeconomic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted atambient temperature and pressure.
7.
 
Use of Renewable Feedstocks
 A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically andeconomically practicable.
 
8.
 
Reduce Derivatives
 Unnecessary derivatization
(
use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection,temporary modificationof physical/chemical processes
)
should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such stepsrequire additional reagents and can generate waste.
9.
 
Catalysis
 Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric
 
reagents.
10.
 
Design for Degradation
 Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down intoinnocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
11.
 
Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention
 Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, inprocess monitoring andcontrol prior to the formation of hazardous substances.
12.
 
Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention
 Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize thepotential for chemical accidents, including releases,explosions, and fires.Biodiesel: using renewable resources
 
Introduction
Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resourcesi.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats aremade up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when rea w striking similarity to petroleum
derived diesel and are called ―Bio
-
diesel‖. As India is deficient in edible oils, non
-edible oil maybe material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered asmost potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from theplant.Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) forproduction of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presencethroughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands,
from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land’s water retention
capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in someIndian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it theyare mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed anydamage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The factremains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction
trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC

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