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Final Report

Final Report



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Published by: shadaa on Feb 12, 2009
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Scaling Silicon DevicesTowards the Atomic Scale
John Alcock (00517801)Sridhar Bulusu (00508188)Atharva Inamdar (00512270)Vishanth Narayan (00515089)Shashwat Sapre (00512655)Ali Shad (00507167)Krishna White (00512908)Supervisor: Dr Z. Durrani
As higher performance is demanded from smaller andsmaller devices, research into nanoscale componentsis of obvious interest. As a result, many devices are inthe process of being scaled to atomic sizes with theuse of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). These include FETs,sensors and complete logic circuits. Larger scaledevices, such as solar panels and lithium ion batteries,may also benefit from a several-fold increase inefficiency and capacity when constructed withnanowires, though this technology is currently at theexperimental stage.
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1Introduction 32Silicon Nanowire Synthesis 42.1Chemical Vapour Deposition 42.2Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition 52.3Vapour-Liquid-Solid Process 52.4Chemical Etching 62.5Laser Assisted Catalytic Growth Method 73Field Effect Transistors 83.1Silicon Nanowire FET Characteristics 93.1.1Multiple-Level FETs by AFM Nanolithography 93.1.24nm Channel Width FETs by AFM Nanolithography 103.1.3Integratable Nanowire Transistors 104Non-Volatile Memory using Molecule-Gated Nanowires 124.1Nanowire Based Non-Volatile Device 134.2Crossed Nanowire Non-Volatile Device 145Nanosensors
Detection of DNA & DNA Sequence Variations 165.1Device Fabrication 165.2Sensing Mechanism 176Lithium Batteries with Silicon Nanowire Anodes 196.1Silicon Nanowires as Anode Materials 197Solar Cells using Silicon Nanowires 227.1Operation 227.1.1Difference Between Nanorod Array and PlanarPhotoelectrodes237.2Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays 237.3Silicon Nanowire Devices for Photovoltaics 247.4Slantingly-Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays 247.5Single Axial p-i-n Nanowires for Solar Energy Harvesting 258Conclusion 279References 28
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The demand for compact, multifunctional devices has been growing at an immense rate, puttingpressure on manufacturers to fit more powerful electronic circuits into ever smaller packages.
However, while Moore‟s Law has so far been a reliable measure of this progress, we are
rapidlyapproaching the limits of current manufacturing methods.Solutions involving nanotechnology
specifically, nanotubes and nanowires
is an area of enormousinterest as the boundaries of manufacturing are pushed even further. As the name suggests,nanowires are wires with dimensions of the order of nanometres. Although much research hasalready been conducted on carbon-based nanotubes (CNTs) and nanowires (CNWs), recently thedirection of study has shifted towards investigation of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). SiNWs present aunique opportunity to fabricate basic electronic components such as Field Effect Transistors (FETs)with nanoscale dimensions. The implications of this research are significant: future processing unitscould potentially have several hundred times the current transistor density, while micro- and nano-scale devices could be fabricated with ease. Over the past three decades, advanced experiments withprogrammable logic circuits and bio-sensors made from nanoscaled FETs have already been carriedout. Devices such as bio-sensors for applications in DNA, virus, and bacterial detection have beenmade successfully and are being tested extensively.The use of SiNWs is not restricted to nanometre-scale electronics. Larger devices, such as thosedesigned for energy harvesting and storage, may also benefit from the technology. The latest SiNW-based solar cells are considerably more cost effective than solar cells built solely with conventionalmethods. Lithium ion cells, used widely in electronics as a result of their high capacity, may have theirstorage capacity at least tenfold
SiNWs have an extremely large charge capacity at lengths of up to just a few hundred nanometres. This paves the way for batteries that last longer, need less frequentcharging and yet are even smaller than existing units.It is important to note that the method of manufacture significantly affects the electrical characteristicsof the nanowires. The most common method used at present is Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD);slight variations of this technique include Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD),which is also widely used. Processes that use CVD generally use the Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS)technique for fabrication. Other methods, such as Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) lithography areused in manufacturing. SiNWs do not have to be made from pure silicon. Doped silicon can also beused.This report describes the various manufacturing processes of SiNWs and their applications,discussing five nanowire devices in detail: FETs, programmable logic circuits, bio-sensors, lithium ionbatteries and solar cells.

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