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Patapatane burial.pdf

Patapatane burial.pdf

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Society for American Archaeology
Archaic Funerary Pattern or Postdepositional Alteration? The Patapatane Burial in theHighlands of South Central AndesAuthor(s): Calogero M. Santoro, Vivien G. Standen, Bernardo T. Arriaza and Tom D. DillehayReviewed work(s):Source:
Latin American Antiquity,
Vol. 16, No. 3 (Sep., 2005), pp. 329-346Published by:
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ARCHAICFUNERARYPATTERN ORPOSTDEPOSITIONALALTERATION?THE PATAPATANEBURIAL INTHEHIGHLANDSOFSOUTHCENTRAL ANDES
CalogeroM.Santoro,Vivien G.Standen,BernardoT.Arriaza,and Tom D.Dillehay
The burialoundatPatapataneCavein thehighlands ofArica,northernChile,yieldedanincompleteskeletonofa 20-to-23-year-oldemale, datingto the endofthe MiddleArchaicperiodat 5910±90 B.P. The site islocated in a semiarid envi-ronmenton the eastern sideofSierradeHuaylillasat3800 m.inthe hinterlandofArica,northern Chile. Wearguethat themissingbones,positionofthecranium,andbreakage ofsome elements resultedrombothpostdepositionalhuman inter-ventionandtaphonomicprocesses.Thebodywaslaidto rest inasupine positionandafteritbecameskeletonizedhuntersrevisitedthe inhumationand removedome bone elements.However,he otherbonespresentin situ werenotdisplacedandremainednproperanatomicalposition,with theexception ofthecranium,which wasplacedverticallyontop ofthe cer-vical vertebrae.Theobservedbreakage ofvertebrae,longbones,andskullseems to have beenthe resultof taphonomic,nonanthropogenic,postburialactions. InreportingonthePatapataneburial,Archaicperiod funerary patternsromwest-ern SouthAmerica arereviewed tosupportthe notionthatearlyhuntersandgatherers systematically manipulatedtheirdeadthroughperimortemandpostmortemalterations.These included severalprocesses:(1)processesofbodyreductionandtransformationbyremovalofbodysections or removalofboneelements, cremation,andhuman remainsdiscarded indomesticmiddens;and(2)processesof artificial preservationofthedeadthatincludedroasting,salting,andartificialmum-mification.Inaddition,werecognizethesimultaneousexistenceofintactprimaryburial and thatother skeletons werepos-siblyalteredaccidentallybypostdepositionalnaturalorculturalagents.El enterratorioncontradoenla CuevaPatapataneenlas tierrasalias de Aricadel norte deChile,correspondeaunesqueletoincompleto,pertenecientea unamujerde 20 a23altosdeedad,yestadatado haciafinalesdeArcaicoMedio,conunaecharadiocarbOnicao calibradade 5.910± 90altos A.P.El sitio se ubica en unambientesemi-deserticoenla Sierra deHuayli-llas,a 3.800m dealtura,en elinteriorde Arica.Argumentamos uelos huesosausentes,laposiciOndel crcineoylasfrac-turasobservadasenalgunaspietasOseasueronelresultadode acciones humanasostdepositacionales procesostafonOmicos.Elcuerpo,enterradoenformaextendidaenposiciOnupina,muestrasignosinequivocosdequedespuesdesu inhumaci6nytrascurridountiemponecesarioparasuesqueletizaciOn,e removieronunaseriedeelementosOseos.Loshuesos remanentesnofuerondesplazados yquedaronenposici6nanatOmica,onlaexcepci6ndelcrane°,que fuecolocadoenformaverticalsobre lasvertebrascervicales,conperdidadelamandibula.Lasracturasobservadasen huesoslargos,vertebras,y foramenmagnumueronaparentementeonsecuencia defactores tafonomicospostdepositacionalesnohumanas.Junto con el ente-rratoriodePatapatane,se revisO a literaturaacercade evidenciasunerariasarcaicas a lolargodel oeste deSudamerica,paraevaluarlahip6tesisquelosantiguoscazadoresrecolectoresdeestaregiondelcontinente,sistemciticamente lteraron-peri y postmortem- aintegridadde los muertos.Esto incluia:(1)procesosdetransformacionreducciOn e loscuerposatraves dela remociOnepanesdelmismo,delaeliminaciOn epietasOseas,acremaciOneldescarte de restoshumanoscarbonizadosendepOsitosde basuray,(2)procesosartificialesdeconservaciOneloscuerposa tames dequemado,saladoomomificaciOnrtificial.Ademcis,econocemosa existencia simultcineadepatronesde enterramientorimariosintactosyde entierrosdisturbadosaccidentalmenteorlaacciOnhumanaoagentesnaturales.CalogeroM.Santoro¦CentrodeInvestigacionesdelHombreenelDesierto,DepartamentodeAntropologia,UniversidaddeTarapaca,Casilla6-D, Arica,Chile(csantoro@uta.cl)VivienG. Standen¦CentrodeInvestigacionesdelHombreen elDesierto,DepartamentoeAntropologia,UniversidaddeTarapaca,Casilla6-D, Arica,Chile(vstanden@uta.cl)BernardoT.Arriaza¦CentrodeInvestigacionesdel HombreenelDesierto,DepartamentoeAntropologia,UniversidaddeTarapaca,Casilla6-D, Arica,Chile(barriaza@uta.cl)TomD.Dillehay¦DepartmentfAnthropology,VanderbiltUniversity,Nashville,TN37235,USA(tom.d.dillehay@van-derbilt.edu)Latin AmericanAntiquity,16(3),2005,pp.329-346Copyright©2005bytheSocietyfor AmericanArchaeology329
This content downloaded on Tue, 22 Jan 2013 13:49:14 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
330LATINAMERICANNTIQUITY[Vol.16,No.3,2005]
This reportexamines amutilated and dis-memberedbodywithina broader eviewofthefuneraryatternsf Archaichunter-and-gatherer opulationsndifferentegionsof westernSouthAmerica.Basedonasingleskeletonexca-vatednPatapataneCave,datedat5910±90B.P.,andon thereviewediterature,earguehatmanip-ulationand ransformationfdeadbodieswasmorecommon thanpreviouslythoughtnthestudyofArchaicmortuaryituals.The evidence rom Pata-pataneCaveandother itesnwesternSouthAmer-icasuggesthatpostmortemlterationasprobablyrelated o ancientbeliefsystemsca.11,000o 4000B.P.).1Wearguehatbothperimortemndpostde-positionalmodificationswerepracticedbyPale-oindianndEarlyArchaicpeoplesn westerns outhAmerica.The timeframe for Paleoindian sfrom12,500to10,000B.P.,butall of the cases reviewedinthispaperall withinhetransitionaleriodof theTerminalPleistocenetoearlyHolocene(ca.11,000-10,000BP. Theime rame or heArchaicisfromca.10,000to4000 B.P.Weuse uncalibratedradiocarbonearsbeforepresent.Thedisposalof the deadin domestic sitesisacommonfeatureamongArchaichuntersandgath-erers ofthe Andes.A consistentpatternamongmanysitesin the Andesis the deliberatemanipu-lation of thebodyin variouswaysin bothprimaryandsecondarycontexts.Wesuggestthattwopri-mary processeswereemployedintentionallytomodifythebody:(1)processesofbodyreductionandransformationyremovalofbodysectionsorremovalofboneelements,andcremation,or,inextremecases,the discardoffragmentedandcharred umanbonesn domesticmiddens;nd2)preservingthebody,includingroasting,salting,and artificialmummification.We are aware thatothertypesofintermentdidnot include visiblemanipulationof thebodies and thatothers werealteredaccidentallyby postdepositionalaturalrculturalagents,which we discuss below.We alsorecognizehe existenceof intactprimaryurial ndof otherskeletons hatmayhavebeen alteredacci-dentallyby postdepositionalnaturalorculturalagents.Ourntenthereis tofocusspecificallyonthe above-mentionedrocessesin western SouthAmerica(Figure1).Basedon thearchaeologicalataavailablenthe1940s,Bird(1988:116)suggestedthatcremation"was hestandardractice mongPaleoindiansntheAmericas ndtmayaccountorthescarcityftheirskeletal emains." hisexplanationmayexplainwhyveryfewexamplesof Paleoindianumanremainshavebeen found n theAmericasDillehay1997).In Holocenetimesin the Andeanhighlands,human emainsalso are scarceAldenderfer989;Dillehay1997;FernandezDistel1986:428;Julienetal.1981:88;Lacombe1994,quotedbyBricerioand Millones1999;Lavallee etal.1982:66-67;Lynch1980;Munizaga1976;Nunez andSantoro1988;Rick1980,1988:23;Santoroand Nunez1987).Thismaybetheconsequenceofmultiplefactors,ncludingerimortemmodifications,asualorintentionalpostdepositionalalteration,thedestructive ffectofnaturalagents,the intermentofbodiesindomesticareasofhighlymobilesites,the absence ofpermanent lacesforinhumation,variabilityndisposingof thedead,difficultyofarcheologicalvisibility,andsamplingbias(Dille-hay1997;Rick1988).Incontrast,hePacific coast fromEcuadoroChile shows a richvarietyofpost-PleistoceneArchaicuneraryontexts(Arriaza1995a,1995b;Arriazaet al.1993;Benfer1990,1999;Bonavia1982;Bricerio ndMillones1999;Chauchat988;Chauchat and Lacombe1984;Dillehay1995;Engel1970;Lavalleeeta1.1999;Munizaga1965;Munozetal.1993;Quevedo1976;Quilter1989,1991;SchiappacassendNiemeyer1984;Standenand Nunez1984;Stothert1985;Tattersall1985;Wise1995,1999;Wiseet al.1994).Thebest-knownexamples the artificialmummification fChinchorrourials,whichrepresentshemostcom-plex funerarytraditionsofthe MiddleArchaicperiodonthe coast of northernChile andsouthernPeru(Allisonetal.1984;Arriaza1995a,1995b;Bittmann1982;Bittmann andMunizaga1976;Guillen1992, 1997;Rivera1994;Standen1991,1997;Uhle1917, 1919;Wise1995,1999).Althoughwerecognizeheimportancef artificialmummificationn the Archaicperiod,t is asec-ondaryoncern n thispaper.OurprimaryoncernisthePatapatanease,whichsourasstarting ointforreviewingawidevarietyofArchaicmortuarypracticesnwesternSouthAmerica.PatapataneCavePatapataneCave is located at3800maslonthenorthsideof anarrowand shallowcanyonthat
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