Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
10Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Events in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Events in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Ratings:
(0)
|Views: 8,160|Likes:
Published by Examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Examville.com on Feb 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/02/2013

 
 
SUMMARY OF THE EVENTS (STEPS) IN SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION
I. Stimulation
1. Nerve impulse arrives at the neuromuscular junction.2. Vesicle in the end plate of motor axon release acetylcholine which diffuses across nerve-muscle gap.3. Acetylcholine depolarizes sarcolemma, and is then inactivated by acetylcholinesterase.4. T tubules and Z lines spread the action potential throughout the muscle fibre.5. Electrical depolarization changes the permeability of S.R., causing somehow the release of calcium ionsfrom the S.R. lumen into the cytoplasm of the muscle fibre.6. Ca
++
bind to troponin, making tropomyosin move uncover the active sites on actin.One complete swiveling cycle of myosine head shortens the sarcomere by about 1% of its original length.
II.
 
Contraction
7. ATP joints meromyosin head that hydrolyses. ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate, releasing energy.The energy raises the head to high-energy state. An enzyme myosin
ATPase
catalyzes the reaction in thepresence of Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
ions.Myosin ATPaseATP ADP + Pi + EnergyCa,Mg
++ ++
 ⎯⎯⎯
 8.
 
The energized head straightens and joins active site on actin, forming a cross-bridge.9. The head now releases ADP and inorganic phosphate and relaxes to its low-energy state and position.This pulls the actin myofilament towards the centre of the sarcomere, that shortens.10. A new ATP molecule joins the head, detaching it form the actin myofilament.11. Above four steps (7 – 10) are repeated many times during one contraction to draw the thin myofilamentsfurther inward.
III.
 
Relaxation
1.
 
Now the calcium ions are quickly returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by active transport with energyfrom ATP.2.
 
Troponin-tropomyosin complex shifts back to block the active sites on actin.3.
 
The thin myofilaments return to their original resting position. The muscle is now relaxed.4.
 
In the relaxation period, sarcolemma becomes normal or repolarized as the sodium-potassium exchangepump starts working.5.
 
In case of repeated contractions, ATP is replenished by the action : ADP + Phosphocreatine = ATP +Creatine.6.
 
In case of excessive muscular activity, the muscle fibres run into oxygen debt and stop contractions due toaccumulation of lactic acid.7.
 
In a resting muscle, the excess lactic acid is oxidized. This enables the muscle to resume contractions.8.
 
EFFICIENCY OF A MUSCLE
A steam engine can convert only about 10% of the heat energy of fuel into useful work, the rest is wasted. Amuscle can use 50 – 70% of the chemical energy of glucose in mechanical work of contraction. Theremaining energy changes into heat, which is not entirely wasted because it is used to maintain the bodytemperature. If we avoid muscle contraction, the heat produced elsewhere in the body is insufficient to keep itwarm in a cold place. Under such a condition, muscles start contracting involuntarily (shivering), producingheat to restore normal body temperature.
 
 
RED AND WHITE SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBRES
Humans have in their skeletal muscles two kinds of striated muscle fibres : tonic or red or slow and twitch orwhite or fast. A muscle may consist of only tonic fibres, or only twitch fibres, or a mixture of both.1.
Tonic (Slow, Red) Muscle Fibres.
These are thin, dark red and slow contracting muscle fibres. Theycontain a high content of a hemeprotein pigment called
myoglobin
, abundant mitochondria, low glycogencontent and poorly formed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myoglobin imparts them dark red colour and storesoxygen as
oxymyoglobin
. Latter’s oxygen by aerobic oxidation in mitochondria provides energy for musclecontraction. Little lactic acid accumulates in this respiration. This enables the red muscle fibres to carry onslow and sustained contractions for long periods without fatigue. The tonic muscle fibres are innervated bythin, slow conducting nerve fibres. The body muscles meant for sustained work at a slow rate for a prolongedduration are composed mostly or entirely of red muscle fibres. The extensor muscles of the back in manremain in sustained contraction to maintain erect posture against gravity. Therefore they are rich in redmuscle fibres.2.
 
Twitch (Fast, White) Muscle Fibres.
These are much thicker, lighter in colour and fast-contractingmuscle fibres. They have a low content of myoglobin, few mitochondira, abundant glycogen granulesand well formed sarcoplasmic reticulum. They derive energy for their fast contractions mainly byanaerobic oxidation, accumulate lactic acid during strenuous work and soon get fatigued. The twitchmuscle fibres are innervated by thick, fast conducting nerve fibres. The body muscles, which are meantfor fast and strenuous work for short durations, are composed mostly or entirely of white muscle fibres.The muscles that move eyeballs are very rich in white fibres.

Activity (10)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
dilipasnani1 liked this
Nurul Surhana liked this
Karthick Jessi liked this
Beke James liked this
Kendra Krentz liked this
Kathryn Robinson liked this
Ciera Strudwick liked this
Marinol Pascua liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->