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THE SPECIAL SENSES – NOSE, TONGUE, SKIN

THE SPECIAL SENSES – NOSE, TONGUE, SKIN

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Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 12, 2009
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04/26/2013

 
 THE SPECIAL SENSES – NOSE, TONGUE, THE SKIN
 
ORGAN OF OLFACTION (NOSE)
 
The olfaction area present in the nasal mucous membrane in the roof of nasal cavity above thesuperior concha.It is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium which have
olfactory receptor cells
that carrythe impulse of smell to the brain.Olfactory receptor cell is surrounded by many supporting cells.The olfactory receptor cells bear cilia (15-20 per cell) which project into the nasal cavity.In both nostrils of man there are around 10 to 20 milion receptor cells.Axon fibres emerge from each receptor cell and form the olfactory nerve.The molecules of the odorant is carried by the air to the nasal mucosa where they are dissolved inthe mucous.They come in contact with the cilia of receptor cells and the impulse of smell is carried by theolfactory nerve to the brain to perceive the stimulus.
 
 
ORGAN OF GUSTATION (TONGUE)
 
The organs of taste or taste buds are found in the tongue in the form of papillae.Each papilla has several buds, which open on tongue surface by taste pore.Taste receptor cells are surrounded by supporting cells.Receptor cells bear microvilli which project out of the pore and receive the stimulus.The receptor cells of taste bud have fine nerves that are linked to the brain stem via facial,glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.The nerves carry impulse of taste which finally reaches the somaesthetic area of cerebral cortex and thestimulus of taste is perceived.
THE SKIN
 
Divided into two parts :a. Outer thin
epidermis
.b. Inner thick 
dermisEpidermis
 Composed of several layers i.e. stratified epithelium.From inside towards the surface, these layers are
i. Stratum malpighii ii. Stratum spinosumiii. Stratum granulosum iv. Stratum lucidumv. Stratum corneum
DERMIS
 
It lies below epidermis and is 2-3 times thicker than it. It is mesodermal in origin.Mainly comp
osed of connectiv
e tissue
having collagen and 
 
elasti
c fibres and cel
ls like fi
brobl
ast and mac
rophages.Folded in the region of contact for firm anchoring.Folds are called dermal papillae and are rich in blood vessels and cutaneous receptors.The nerve endings are encapsulated.Pacinian corpuscles found in deeper layers are sensitive to mechanical pressure.End bulbs of Krause are cold receptors.Or
gans o
f Ruffni are heat receptors.Below the dermis is a fatty layer
called panniculus
adiposus.It stores fats, fat soluble vitamins, acts as insulator preventing heat
loss.
DERIVATIVES OF EPIDERMIS
Hair
1. It is found embedded by its root in oblique tu
be like hair 
follicle, the lower of which enlarges
to form h
air bulb.2. Below hair bulb is a papilla
called hair 
papilla which is highly vascular and neuro sensory;supplies nourishment to hair.3. The projecting part of hair is
call
ed shaft.4. T.S. of shaft of hair shows following structures from inside to outsi
de.i.
Medulla : contains air spaces, surrouned by soft keratinized cell
s.ii
. Cortex : hard keratin fibres with air spaces; contain pigments
.iii.
Cuticle : thin, scaly, irregular, heavily keratinized cells without nucle
i.iv. Cuticle of inner roo
t sheath : delicate, single layer of dead squamous cel
ls.v. Huxley
’s layer : 1 - 2 layers of horny, flattened, nucleated cells.vi. Henle’s layer : single layered, cuboidal, nucleated cells.5. Small involuntary muscle bundle, the arrector pili, is attached to the hair follicle; it helps inerection of hair by
contracting.

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