of the Vedas, is the lower knowledge or ' Aparāvidyā' .
European enlightenment came as a revolt against authorityand tradition. Enlightenment is deeply rooted in Indianculture and tradition. The difference lies in theirunderstanding and approach to knowledge. The mostimportant component of the European spirit of Enlightenment is 'reason' . This is conspicuous even inclassificatory definitive experimental sciences. But reasonwitnessed its own limits and weakness as it failed to deliverthe goods. In the process of raising up humanity it ran awayfrom humanity and its concerns. The concept of freedom,though theoretically defended, started yielding the pride of the place to the concept of rational order. Freedom is beingconsidered almost exclusively in its social dimensions to theutter neglect of inner or individual aspect of freedom.European enlightenment has sought to derive secular-liberalvalues, which seem to have been shattered in historicalexperience.Indian spiritual Enlightenment is the unique realization of the 'Self' as the indwelling essence of everything. This'liberating knowledge' radically transforms the man freeinghim once and for all from delusion, fear, aversion andattachment. On the positive side the 'enlightened one' is theliving emblem of universal love and selflessness. Attainmentof this ' wisdom' is the fulfillment of all desires, which theliberated man has accomplished by complete desirelessness,'Realization of the Self that is within all'(Brihadaranyak.III.IV.I) is the basis of this knowledge of Reality that permeates all existence. Thus the enlightenedman overcomes all forms of alienation.... alienation from theworld, from other men and from oneself. Enlightenment in