“Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks (
) andunorganized clumps (
) of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers sothat they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to bemore easily spun (
part. de hilar, hilados
) into thread. The old method was doneby hand using these tools.
(telar mecánico), and
speed up production,improve quality.
Factories—buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing
(limpiadora de algodón) boosts (
) Americancotton production to meet British demand.>Improvements in Transportation:
Watt’s Steam Engine
Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine
James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton
—organizes, manages, takes business risks.
Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807
England’s water transport improved by system of canals
British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads. Thesewere called “turnpike trusts” (concesionarias de peajes).
By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impedimentto free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged withbeing inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from pettycorruption.
The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts.
The Railway Age Begins
1804, Richard Trevithick
builds first steam-driven locomotive.
1825, George Stephenson
builds world’s first railroad line.
He is called the “Father of Railways”.
His rail gauge (ancho de vía) of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimescalled "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester.
acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829).