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The Beginnings of Industrialization

The Beginnings of Industrialization

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Published by manavega

Short outline of the process of industrialization in England, with a reference to its social consequences first reporter, Charles Dickens.

Short outline of the process of industrialization in England, with a reference to its social consequences first reporter, Charles Dickens.

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Published by: manavega on Jan 27, 2013
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09/17/2013

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ADAPTED BY GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY DEPARTMENT IES FRAY PEDRO DE URBINA
THE BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRIALIZATIONThe Industrial Revolution starts in England and soon spreads to othercountries.Charles Dickens (1812-1870), the reporter of industrialization and workerclass’ conditions of life.Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion
Original cover of
The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club 
(commonlyknown as
The Pickwick Papers 
), the first novel by Charles Dickens.
First edition front piece of
A Christmas Carol 
(1843)
Front piece of the first edition of
Oliver Twist 
(1838).
First Edition cover of
David Copperfield 
(1850)Gads Hill Place: Country Home of Charles DickensIndustrial Revolution begins in Britain
New Ways of Working
Industrial Revolution
—greatly increases output of machine-made goods.
Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s.
The
Agricultural Revolution
Paves the Way
Enclosures
—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges
Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers.
Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods
Crop rotation
—switching crops each year to avoid depleting (
agotar 
) soil
Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply.
Why the Industrial Revolution began in England?
Industrialization
—move to machine production of goods
Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbors
Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment
Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital
Inventions
Spur (
estimular 
) Industrialization
Changes in the Textile Industry
Weavers work faster with
flying shuttles
(lanzadera volante) and
spinning jennies
Water frame
uses water power to drive spinning wheels (husos)
 
“Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks (
mechones 
) andunorganized clumps (
haces 
) of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers sothat they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to bemore easily spun (
part. de hilar, hilados 
) into thread. The old method was doneby hand using these tools.
Power loom
(telar mecánico), and
spinning mule
speed up production,improve quality.
Factories—buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing
Cotton gin
(limpiadora de algodón) boosts (
incrementar 
) Americancotton production to meet British demand.>Improvements in Transportation:
Watt’s Steam Engine
Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine
James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton
Boulton—an
entrepreneur
—organizes, manages, takes business risks.
Water Transportation
Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807
England’s water transport improved by system of canals
Road Transportation
British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads. Thesewere called “turnpike trusts” (concesionarias de peajes).
By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impedimentto free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged withbeing inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from pettycorruption.
The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts.
The Railway Age Begins
Steam-Driven Locomotives
In
1804, Richard Trevithick
builds first steam-driven locomotive.
In
1825, George Stephenson
builds world’s first railroad line.
He is called the “Father of Railways”.
His rail gauge (ancho de vía) of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimescalled "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester.
Stephenson’s
Rocket 
acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829).

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