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India's China War - Neville Maxwell

India's China War - Neville Maxwell



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Published by: Amit on Feb 12, 2009
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 India’s China War by Neville Maxwell
Historical Introduction: The Limits of Empires 3
1. The Western Sector 
2. The McMahon Line
Part I: Collision Course 7
1. The Course is Set
2. Evasive Action
Part II: The Forward Policy 21
Part III: The View from Peking 30
Part IV: The Border War 37
1. The Ridge and the River 
2. Between Two Passes
Part V: Ceasefire 73
Historical Introduction: The Limits of Empires
1. The Western Sector 
The disputed territories between China and India are located at a no-man’s land,where nothing grows and no one lives, on high altitude Himalayas, one of themost barren regions of the world. For centuries, the Himalayas was the focalpoint of military and political maneuvers between the three empires, theRussians in the north, the British on the subcontinent and the Chinese over theother side of the Himalayas. A constant and basic British aim was to keep theRussians as far as possible from the plains of India. The British and Russiansmade Afghanistan to play as buffer between them to avoid collision, but theirattempts to make China as a buffer failed as the Chinese refused to cooperate. In1846, after the British took Kashmir and set it up as the northern frontier, theytried to demarcate a boundary with Tibet at Ladakh, which lay in the valley ofthe upper Indus at an altitude of twelve thousand feet or more. It had been partof Tibet up to the tenth century, when it became an independent kingdom. In thesixteenth century, it became a tributary state of the Mongol Empire, and in thenineteen century, it was regarded as part of Tibet again. In 1846, since neither theChinese nor Tibetans cooperated with Britain, no demarcation of the Tibet-Ladakh boundary took place. In 1846 and 1847, the British commissioners drewboundaries in north of the Pangong Lake and stopped at the Karakoram Pass butcould not correctly define the northwest boundaries of Tibet. Aksai Chin, whichbecame the heart of contention between India and China a century later, laybetween the Lake and the Pass. At 17,000 feet elevation, the desolation of AksaiChin had no human importance other than an ancient trade route that crossedover it, providing a brief pass during summer for caravans of yaks from Sinkiangto Tibet that carried silk, jade, hemp, salt or wool.By the 1860s, the Russians forced China to sign the treaties of Aigun and Peking.China lost a great tract of territory in Central Asia to Russia, which took all thenorth of the Amur River and east of its tributary, cutting off China from the Seaof Japan. China decided not to negotiate boundary settlements from a weakposition, and persisted with this approach until the middle of the 1950s. In early1880s, China and India agreed the Karakoram Pass as the fixed point ofboundary, while leaving both sides of the pass indefinite. In the mid-1890s,China claimed Aksai Chin as its territory, and voiced the claim to Macartney in1896, who drew part of the British boundary in the Himalayas. Macartneypresented the claim to the British who agreed with his comment that part ofAksai Chin was in China and part in the British territory. Meanwhile, theforward school of British strategist in London suggested that the British should

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Hi, can someone send me the download link of this book.
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India, China history was not known earlier.
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