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Elementary Number Theory

Elementary Number Theory

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Published by dismaliser
Kenneth Rosen
Kenneth Rosen

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Published by: dismaliser on Jan 29, 2013
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Elementary
Number
Theory
andts
Applications
KennethH. Rosen
AT&TInformotionSystemsaboratories(formerly partofBell Laborotories)
AYY
ADDISON-WESLEYPUBLISHINGCOMPANY
Readng, MassachusettsMenlo Park,CaliforniaLondon AmsterdamDon Mills,OntarioSydney
 
Cover:The iterationof thetransformation
T(n):
isdepicted.TheCollatzconjectureassertshat withanystartingpoint,theiterationof ?"eventuallyeachesheintegerone.(SeeProblem33ofSection.2ofthetext.)Libraryof CongressCatalogingin PublicationDataRosen,KennethH.Elementarynumbertheoryand itsapplications.Bibliography: p.Includesndex.l. Numbers,Theoryof.I. Title.
QA24l.R671984rsBN0-201-06561-4512',.7283-l1804
Reprinted withcorrections,June| 986CopyrightO1984by BellTelephoneLaboratoriesandKennethH. Rosen.Allrightsreserved.Nopartof thispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem, ortransmitted,inany formor byany means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,or otherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionof thepublisher.printedinthe UnitedStates ofAmerica.Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada.DEFGHIJ_MA_8987\n/2if nisevenl Qn+ l)/2ifnisodd
 
Preface
Numbertheoryhas longbeen a favorite subjectforstudentsand teachersofmathematics. It is a classicalsubject and has a reputation for beingthe"purest" partofmathematics,yetrecentdevelopmentsncryptology andcomputer science are based on elementary numbertheory.Thisbookisthefirst text tointegratethese importantapplications of elementarynumbertheorywiththe traditional topics covered in an introductory numbertheorycourse.This book is suitableas a text inan undergraduatenumber theorycourseatanylevel.There are noformalprerequisitesneededor most ofthematerialcovered,so that even a bright high-schoolstudent coulduse this book.Also,this book is designedo be a usefulsupplementarybook for computersciencecourses,and as a numbertheoryprimerfor computerscientists nterested nlearningabout the newdevelopments ncryptography.Some of the importanttopics that will interestbothmathematicsand computer sciencestudentsarerecursion,algorithms and theircomputationaicomplexity, computerarithmeticwithlarge integers,binaryand hexadecimalrepresentationsof integers,primalitytesting,pseudoprimality,pseudo-randomumbers,hashing functions,and cryptology, includingthe recently-inventedarea ofpublic-keycryptography.Throughoutthe book variousalgorithmsandtheircomputationalcomplexitiesare discussed.Awidevarietyofprimalitytestsaredevelopedn thetext.Useof the BookThecore materialfora coursen numbertheory ispresentednChapters 1,2,and 5,and in Sections3.1-3.3and6.1. Section3.4 containssome linearalgebra;this sectionisnecessarybackgroundforSection 7.2;thesetwosectionscan beomittedif desired.Sections 4.1, 4.2,and 4.3presenttraditionalapplicationsof numbertheoryand Section 4.4 presentsanapplicationto computerscience;the instructorcan decide whichofthesesectionso cover.Sections6.2and 6.3discussarithmeticfunctions.Mersenneprimes,andperfectnumbers;someof this materialis usedinChapter8.Chapter 7coversthe applicationsof numbertheory to cryptology.Sections7.1, 7.3,and 7.4, whichcontaindiscussionsof classicalandpublic-key

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