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Introduction
1.1 Basic deﬁnitions
2.1 Polygonal links and Reidemeister moves
2.2 Knot arithmetics and Seifert surfaces
3.3 The Arf invariant
3.4 The colouring invariant
Fundamental group
4.2 Fundamental group
4.3 Calculating knot groups
5.1 Introduction
5.3 Completeness of the quandle
5.6 Realisations of the Conway algebra
Matrix representation
6.3 Kauﬀman’s two–variable polynomial
7.1 Simplest properties
7.2 Tait’s ﬁrst conjecture and Kauﬀman–Murasugi’s
7.4 The third Tait conjecture
7.5 A knot table
7.6.1 The two phenomenological conjectures
Theory of braids
8.1 Four deﬁnitions of the braid group
8.1.1 Geometrical deﬁnition
8.1.2 Topological deﬁnition
8.1.3 Algebro–geometrical deﬁnition
8.1.4 Algebraic deﬁnition
8.1.5 Equivalence of the four deﬁnitions
8.1.6 The stable braid group
8.1.7 Pure braids
8.3 Braids and the Jones polynomial
8.4 Representations of the braid groups
8.4.1 The Burau representation
8.4.2 A counterexample
8.5 The Krammer–Bigelow representation
8.5.1 Krammer’s explicit formulae
8.5.2 Bigelow’s construction and main ideas of the proof
9.1 Alexander’s theorem
9.2 Vogel’s algorithm
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Construction of the invariant
10.1.3 Algebraic description of the invariant
10.2 LD–systems and the Dehornoy algorithm
10.2.1 Why the Dehornoy algorithm stops
10.3 Minimal word problem for Br(3)
10.4 Spherical, cylindrical, and other braids
10.4.1 Spherical braids
10.4.2 Cylindrical braids
11.1 Markov’s theorem after Morton
11.2 Makanin’s generalisations. Unary braids
Vassiliev’s invariants
Deﬁnitions and basic notions
12.1 Singular knots and
12.2 Invariants of orders zero and one
12.3 Examples of higher–order invariants
12.6 An example of an inﬁnite-order invariant
The chord diagram algebra
13.1 Basic structures
and the four colour theorem
13.4.1 Historical development
13.4.2 An upper bound
13.4.3 A lower bound
13.4.4 A table of dimensions
14.1 Preliminary Kontsevich integral
14.2 Z(∞) and the normalisation
14.3 Coproduct for Feynman diagrams
14.4 Invariance of the Kontsevich integral
14.4.1 Integrating holonomies
14.5 Vassiliev’s module
14.6 Goussarov’s theorem
14.6.1 Gauss diagrams
Atoms and d–diagrams
15.1 Atoms and height atoms
15.2 Theorem on atoms and knots
15.3 Encoding of knots by d–diagrams
by words in a ﬁnite alphabet
16.2 Representation of links by quasitoric braids
16.2.1 Deﬁnition of quasitoric braids
16.2.2 Pure braids are quasitoric
16.2.3 d–diagrams of quasitoric braids
Virtual knots
Basic deﬁnitions
17.1 Combinatorial deﬁnition
17.5.2 Strange properties of virtual knots
18.1 The virtual grouppoid (quandle)
18.2 The Jones–Kauﬀman polynomial
18.3 Presentations of the quandle
18.3.1 The fundamental group
18.3.2 The colouring invariant
18.4 The VA-polynomial
18.5.2 The two–variable polynomial
18.5.3 The multivariable polynomial
19.1 Introduction. Basic deﬁnitions
19.2 An example
Long virtual knots
20.1 Introduction
20.2 The long quandle
20.3 Colouring invariant
20.4 The V–rational function
20.5 Virtual knots versus long virtual knots
Virtual braids
21.1 Deﬁnitions of virtual braids
21.2 Burau representation and its generalisations
21.3 Invariants of virtual braids
21.3.1 Introduction
21.3.2 The construction of the main invariant
21.3.3 First fruits
21.3.4 How strong is the invariant f?
21.4 Virtual links as closures of virtual braids
21.5 An analogue of Markov’s theorem
and knots in 3-manifolds
22.1 Knots in RP3
22.2 An introduction to the Kirby theory
22.2.1 The Heegaard theorem
22.2.2 Constructing manifolds by framed links
22.2.3 How to draw bands
22.2.4 The Kirby moves
22.3 The Witten invariants
22.3.1 The Temperley–Lieb algebra
22.3.2 The Jones–Wenzl idempotent
22.3.3 The main construction
22.4 Invariants of links in three–manifolds
22.5 Virtual 3–manifolds and their invariants
23.1 Legendrian manifolds and Legendrian curves
23.1.1 Contact structures
23.1.2 Planar projections of Legendrian links
23.2 Deﬁnition, basic notions, and theorems
23.3 Fuchs–Tabachnikov moves
23.4 Maslov and Bennequin numbers
23.5 Finite–type invariants of Legendrian knots
23.7 Chekanov–Pushkar’ invariants
23.8 Basic examples
B.1 The Goussarov–Viro–Polyak approach
B.2 The Kauﬀman approach
B.2.1 Some observations
Energy of a knot
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03/13/2014

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