time values of0,1,2,3,and the cancellation symmetry of
d
µ
A
ν
 d
ν
A
µ
gives an overall value of
F
µν
= 0:
F 00=
0
F 01= Ex F 02 = E y F 03= Ez F 10=Ex F 11=
0
F 12 = Bz F 13= B y F 20=E y F 21= Bz F 22 =
0
F 23= Bx F 30=Ez F 31= B y F 32 = Bx F 33=
0 Therefore,it is only when components of
F
µν
are picked out that a net field strength results.The field strength tensor istherefore somewhat contrived or arbitrary and “unphysical”,contrasted to the physicallybased electric and magnetic fields,
E
and
B.
Furthermore,
F
µν
is a rank2 tensor since it has two indices,although it summarizes rank1 components,obtainedby selection ofthe indices,e.g.
E
µ
= F
µ
0
.Although,as emphasised above,this can be perceived to be a “elegant”mathematical model ofelectromagnetism,physically it does not move away from Faraday’s representation offields as magnetic and electric field “lines in space”.Ifwe want compatibility ofelectromagnetism and general relativity,we must moveaway from lines in space and towards spacetime curvature,which is truly a rank2 formulation over fully spacetime indices, without the mathematical “trick”ofpicking out rank1 equations from a rank2 tensor by artificially setting one indice tozero,as in
E
µ
= F
µ
0
.From this point ofview,Maxwell’s equations are obfuscated by Einstein’s tensor framework becausethey remain diverging or curling lines in space,as contrasted to spacetime curvature described by the rank2 Ricci tensor ingeneral relativity,yet this field tensor gauge fixing is extended in the YangMills equation. The arbitrary way that Maxwell’s inhomogeneous equations are “picked out”of
d
µ
F
µν
by setting
ν
= 1 for Ampere’s electric current and Maxwell’s displacement current laws,and
ν
= 0 for Gauss’s law looks conveniently contrived in appearance;the student simply asks “what about
ν
= 2,and
ν
= 3?”However,the AharonovBohm effect proves that the “physical”
E
and
B
components do not include all ofthe information necessary to describe the electromagnetic field,so on thisexperimental basis,some larger structure including for example the extra components ofpotentials
A
and
φ
are defensible.On the other hand,the AharonovBohm effect is physically the existence ofthe energy density of“cancelled”fields.It proves that the superposition oftwo fields which cancel doesn’t destroy the energy density ofthe field in the vacuum, which remains there,unseen apart from subtle quantum effects.It proves that Maxwell’s simplistic
E, B
field line formulation is inadequate,but it does not directly prove the details ofthe Einstein’s tensor formulation based on a neat fixing of field potentials.As shown above,Einstein’s gauge fixing elegantly yields the two key homogeneous Maxwell equations.In addition,the gauge fixing ofMaxwell’s equations allows very neat calculations for electromagnetic radiation.Thus,Mandl and Shaw’s
Quantum Field Theory
(2nd ed.,2010,equation 1.6) points out that
.
A
= 0 “defines the Coulomb orradiation gauge.A vector with vanishing divergence [satisfying
.
A
= 0] is called a transverse field,since for a wave
Ax,t = A0e i
(
k.x 
ω
t
),[the equation
.
A
= 0] gives
k
.
A =
0,i.e.,
A
is perpendicular to the direction ofpropagation
k
ofthe wave.” A key geometric development from electromagnetic gauge fixing was the YangMills equation for nonAbelian fields wherethe Lie product,[
A
µ
,
A
ν
] =
A
µ
A
ν

A
ν
A
µ
,is added to the covariant electromagnetic field strength tensor
F
µν
=
d
µ
A
ν
 d
ν
A
µ
,
to allow charge transfer by massive charged field quanta,which occurs in the SU(N) nonAbelian interactions.Steenrod wrote
The Topology ofFibre Bundles
in 1951,leading to work on the connection ofgauge theory to fibre bundles by Simons,which was taken up by Wu and Yang in 1975 (
Phys. Rev.
D12,pp.384557).Zeidler’s 2011
Quantum Field Theory III: Gauge Theory
(p.5) explains how Yang became interested in the geometry offibre bundles after discovering inthe 1960s that his YangMills nonAbelian field equation is transformable into the Riemann tensor (the rank4 curvaturetensor whose contraction is the Ricci tensor ofgeneral relativity).The Riemann tensor measures curvature by the holonomy ofthe mainfold,i.e.the failure ofa vector transported around a loop to return to its original position in curved space.But the YangMills equation,an extension ofthe electromagnetic field strength tensor,just describes “field lines”. This “transformation”between the YangMills and Riemann tensors by Yang is based on two fundamental assumptions(Zeidler,
Quantum Field Theory III: Gauge Theory,
Springer,2011,pp.356);first,the 16 component Christoffel matrix
Γ
a
µ
b
is assumed to be equal to the covariant vector potential,
A
µ
=
Γ
a
µ
b
where
a
and
b
each take values of0,1,2 and 3 to form