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Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Low-priced Webcam

Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Low-priced Webcam

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Published by Md. Rajibul Islam
A number of biometric techniques have been proposed for personal identification in the past. Among the vision-based ones, we can point out fingerprint, face, palm, ear, iris and retina recognition. Voice recognition or signature verification are the most widely known among the non-vision based ones. Signature verification requires the use of electronic tablets or digitizers for on-line capturing and optical scanners for on-line adaptation. These interfaces have some negative aspect that they are large and convoluted to use, increasing the intricacy of the whole identification system. On the other hand, scanners and cameras are much smaller and easy to handle, and are becoming all over in the current computer atmosphere. Lots of vision-based biometric techniques have been projected in the past for personal identification. We present a novel one based on visual capturing of fingerprints using a Webcam. However, there is an open issue to use webcam in stead of any scanner because of the low price, available in the market and easy to adjust anywhere. In this paper, we describe our implementation of the fingerprint authentication system using webcam having Pentium IV CPU, 256 RAM and a piece of transparent glass and a light source. Also, we describe a preprocessing technique based on gamma manipulation and gamma correction that can be executed to adjust lightness and intensities of the fingerprint image before fingerprint image enhancement and feature extraction.
A number of biometric techniques have been proposed for personal identification in the past. Among the vision-based ones, we can point out fingerprint, face, palm, ear, iris and retina recognition. Voice recognition or signature verification are the most widely known among the non-vision based ones. Signature verification requires the use of electronic tablets or digitizers for on-line capturing and optical scanners for on-line adaptation. These interfaces have some negative aspect that they are large and convoluted to use, increasing the intricacy of the whole identification system. On the other hand, scanners and cameras are much smaller and easy to handle, and are becoming all over in the current computer atmosphere. Lots of vision-based biometric techniques have been projected in the past for personal identification. We present a novel one based on visual capturing of fingerprints using a Webcam. However, there is an open issue to use webcam in stead of any scanner because of the low price, available in the market and easy to adjust anywhere. In this paper, we describe our implementation of the fingerprint authentication system using webcam having Pentium IV CPU, 256 RAM and a piece of transparent glass and a light source. Also, we describe a preprocessing technique based on gamma manipulation and gamma correction that can be executed to adjust lightness and intensities of the fingerprint image before fingerprint image enhancement and feature extraction.

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Published by: Md. Rajibul Islam on Feb 13, 2009
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International Conference on Data Management (ICDM2008),IMT Ghaziabad, India, Feb. 25-26, 2008
 
689
Fingerprint Authentication System using a low-priced Webcam
Md. Rajibul Islam, Md. Shohel Sayeed, Andrews Samraj
Faculty of Information Science and Technology (FIST) Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh lama, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia E-mail: {md.rajibul.islam05, shohel.sayeed, andrews.samraj}@mmu.edu.my
Abstract
A number of biometric techniques have been proposed for personal identification in the past.Among the vision-based ones, we can point out fingerprint, face, palm, ear, iris and retinarecognition. Voice recognition or signature verification are the most widely known amongthe non-vision based ones. Signature verification requires the use of electronic tablets ordigitizers for on-line capturing and optical scanners for on-line adaptation. These interfaceshave some negative aspect that they are large and convoluted to use, increasing the intricacyof the whole identification system. On the other hand, scanners and cameras are much smallerand easy to handle, and are becoming all over in the current computer atmosphere. Lots of vision-based biometric techniques have been projected in the past for personal identification.We present a novel one based on visual capturing of fingerprints using a Webcam. However,there is an open issue to use webcam in stead of any scanner because of the low price,available in the market and easy to adjust anywhere. In this paper, we describe ourimplementation of the fingerprint authentication system using webcam having Pentium IVCPU, 256 RAM and a piece of transparent glass and a light source. Also, we describe apreprocessing technique based on gamma manipulation and gamma correction that can beexecuted to adjust lightness and intensities of the fingerprint image before fingerprint imageenhancement and feature extraction.
 Key words
: webcam, fingerprint, gamma manipulation, gamma correction, fingerprint authentication.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Because of ridge direction and minutiae such as ridge endings and ridge bifurcations are usedfor matching, so the performance of automatic fingerprint matching systems depends on localridge characteristics. The ridges can be easily detected and minutiae can be correctlyextracted in an ideal fingerprint thinned image. However, the quality of many fingerprints isoften poor due to the injured part on the skin and the atmosphere in which it was taken. Alsothe quality of fingerprints is very poor which are captured by a low priced webcam. The ridgeformations in these poor-quality fingerprint images are not well defined and minutiae cannotbe correctly detected. Therefore, a discrete ridge structure is necessary to assurance robustminutiae detection in spite of image quality. As such, the goal of this research is to improvethe clarity of ridge structures of a poor fingerprint image captured by webcam to assist thecorrect extraction of minutiae.Enhancing fingerprint images facilitate matching is a problem that has been much studied [1][2] [3]. Minutiae extraction from fingerprint images is one of the most important steps inautomatic fingerprint identification and classification. Minutiae are local discontinuities inthe fingerprint pattern, mainly terminations and bifurcations [1]. Fingerprint image quality isan important factor in the performance of Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems(AFIS). It is used to evaluate the system performance, assess enrollment acceptability, andevaluate fingerprint sensors. [2]
 
International Conference on Data Management (ICDM2008),IMT Ghaziabad, India, Feb. 25-26, 2008
 
690
A number of techniques to enhance fingerprint images have been proposed, which takeadvantage of ridge characteristics such as directionality. In this paper, we have presented apreprocessing system using gamma manipulation and gamma correction methods whichadjust lightness and intensities of the poor quality fingerprint image. The rest of the paper isprearranged as, in section 2 we present an overview of the proposed system and also ourcontribution in this paper specially gamma manipulation and gamma correction. In section 3we show the experiments, results and discussion and finally section 4 concludes the paper.
 2.0 OVERVIEW OF OUR PROPOSED SYSTEM
Fig. 1 shows our proposed block diagram of the whole authentication system and theexperimental setup. The preprocessing stage performs the initialization of the algorithm, i.e. itcaptures a colorful low resolution fingerprint image and convert it to grayscale image andperforms the gamma manipulation and gamma correction to adjust lightness and intensities of the fingerprint image. Then feeds it into the next block. The fingerprint enhancement block has the task of enhance the fingerprint on each impression of each user by using the codeloosely follows the approach presented by P.D. Kovesi [4]. Just before feature extraction athinning process needs to be performed as indicated in [5]. In which two tests are run oneafter the other until none of them discover pixels that need to be removed. However, thismethod did not meet the requirements imposed to a thinning algorithm because it still leftsome spurious structures that did not permit a single point inside a line to have only twoneighbors, a ridge-end only one, and a bifurcation three. The conformance to the establishedcriteria was obtained by the creation of a third test to be run once after the former two arepassed to test for certain conditions in matrices of 3x3 pixels that indicate a spurious structurethat shall be properly modified.The minutiae
 
extraction process, defined in [6], uses matrices of 3x3 pixels to search fortypical minutiae, that is: ridge endings and ridge bifurcations. After extraction minutiae theextracted data stores to the system database. Finally for the matching process, the liveextracted data is to be compared with the extracted data stored in the system database.
(a)
Enrolment Process
(b)
Verification Process
Fig. 1
: (a) Block Diagram of the Enrolment system. The webcam captures afingerprint impression to the preprocessing stage. This block initializes the algorithmand selects the grey scale fingerprint to perform the enhancement. The enhancedfingerprint obtains the position of the minutiae in the feature extraction block and
 
Yes/ NoGlassWebcamPreprocessingstageFingerprintenhancementFeatureextractionSystemDatabaseMatching
 
International Conference on Data Management (ICDM2008),IMT Ghaziabad, India, Feb. 25-26, 2008
 
691
finally stored the extracted data in system database block. (b) Block Diagram of theverification system. Like the enrolment system after successfully satisfied all theblocks until Feature extraction, live feature data will verify with the feature datastored with the system database.
2.1 Our Contribution
 Our proposed scheme is the most automatic and unobtrusive security device. We use awebcam attached to the computer and applies fingerprint recognition to analyze thefingerprint it sees, matching it against the minutiae of the fingerprint belonging to theauthorized user. When the proposed protocol ready to capture fingerprint using USB-connected webcam, we tried both, a relatively high end Creative unit and a low end LogitechQuickCam and didn't notice any difference in performance. It seems that the fingerprintrecognition process does not depend on a particularly high resolution image to identify thenecessary features which we have presented below in this section. On the other hand, we didnotice a difference when changing lighting conditions. When the light source is behind thefingerprint, our proposed scheme has more difficulty identifying the features than when thelighting is in front or to the side. Another problem is to get the whole minutiae as well asridges and valleys of the fingerprint as shown in Fig 2.(a) (b)
Fig. 2
: (a) Fingerprint captured by webcam without using transparent glass. (b)Enhanced fingerprint using the code loosely follows the approach presented byPeter Kovesi [4].To overcome this problem we have used a piece of clear transparent glass. The user has topress his finger on the glass and from the opposite side the fingerprint will be captured. Andbetween the webcam and glass we have used light source lighting to the side because if thelighting is in front of the glass it reflects and captured a shadow with the fingerprint image.The lightness of the fingerprint images captured by low-priced webcam is so bright and blur,and for that it doesn’t give better result to enhance the ridges of the fingerprint image. That’swhy we’ve used a preprocessing stage in our system to perform gamma manipulation andcorrection to adjust lightness and intensities of the fingerprint image. The outcomes areshown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6.
2.2 Gamma Manipulation
The fingerprint images captured by webcam are not gamma corrected. During thepreprocessing stage when the image processing operations are performed on color fingerprint

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