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power factor correction

# power factor correction

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methods of power factor corrections
methods of power factor corrections

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10/17/2013

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Elspec Power Quality Solutions

www.elspec-ltd.com
1
Most people associate electricity andenergy with kilowatts (kW). In fact,however, kW only makes up a part of the overall energy usage in a home,commercial building or an industrialmanufacturing plant. In the world of  ‘AC’ power, there are actually threetypes of power:
Apparent Power (measured in
•
Volt-Amps)Real Power (measured in Watts)
•
Reactive Power (measured in
•
VARs)
Apparent Power is the easiest tomeasure and calculate. It is simplythe product of the single-phase rmsVoltage and rms Current.Formula 1:
Apparent Power (S) = V
rms
x I
rms
The relationship between ApparentPower (S) and the other two is
inuenced by what is called Power
Factor (PF). The PF is directlycorrelated to the magnitude of realand reactive power being consumed.The following graphs illustrate two
denitions of power factor. Figure 1 iscalled the vector-sum denition. The
power factor is calculated as the cosineof the angle between the Real Powerand Apparent Power. It can also bedetermined by dividing the Real Powerby the Apparent Power.FIGURE 1Formula 2:Figure 2 represents the AC waveformsof voltage and current. The waveform
denition also calculates the power
factor as the cosine of the angle,however this time the angle is thedifference between zero-crossingpositions of each waveform on thex-axis.FIGURE 2To calculate Real Power, multiply thePower Factor times the ApparentPower.Formula 3:
Real Power (P) = S x PF = V
rms
x I
rms
x PF
Reactive Power (Q) is used by loadssuch as motors that require more thanpurely real power to operate. Therelationship between Apparent Power,Real Power and Reactive Power canmost easily be described using thePythagorean Theorem. The Real andReactive Power vectors form the rightangle of a triangle, and the ApparentPower vector, then is the resultant sumof those two vectors, the hypotenuse.Formula 4:S
2
= P
2
+ Q
2
As a result, every electrical utilityactually generates Apparent Powerand not just Real Power. The powerfactor can in many ways be considered
a measure of the efciency of an
electrical system, or as a measure of the customer’s electrical utilization of plant and equipment. Because of this,most utilities throughout the worldcharge customers for power factor andreactive power in a variety of ways.
UTILITY BILLING SCENARIOS:
kVA Billing – straight charges for
•
all apparent power consumed kVAr Billing – additional charges
•
for reactive power Power Factor Penalty – charges
•
based on the customer’s actual  power factor  Adjusted kW Demand the real
•
power demand is adjusted by a formula and is based on thecustomer’s actual power factor
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