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Introduction
1.1 Numbers
1.1.1 Why Do We Use a Base 10 Number System?
1.1.2 Why Do Computers Use Binary?
1.1.4 Other Number Concepts
1.1.5 Complex Numbers
1.2 What Is a Signal?
1.3 Analog Versus Digital
1.4 What Is a System?
1.5 What Is a Transform?
1.6 Why Do We Study Sinusoids?
1.7 Sinusoids and Frequency Plots
1.8 Summations
1.9 Summary
1.10 Review Questions
2.1 Working with Variables
2.2 Getting Help and Writing Comments
2.3 MATLAB Programming Basics
2.3.1 Scalars, Vectors, and Matrices
2.3.2 Number Ranges
2.3.3 Output
2.3.4 Conditional Statements (if)
2.3.5 Loops
2.3.6 Continuing a Line
2.4 Arithmetic Examples
2.5 Functions
2.6 How NOT to Plot a Sinusoid
2.7 Plotting a Sinusoid
2.8 Plotting Sinusoids a Little at a Time
2.9 Calculating Error
2.10 Sometimes 0 Is Not Exactly 0
2.10.1 Comparing Numbers with a Tolerance
2.10.2 Rounding and Truncating
2.11 MATLAB Programming Tips
2.12 MATLAB Programming Exercises
2.13 Other Useful MATLAB Commands
2.14 Summary
2.15 Review Questions
Filters
3.1 Parts of a Filter
3.2 FIR Filter Structures
3.3 Causality, Linearity, and Time-Invariance
3.4 Multiply Accumulate Cells
3.5 Frequency Response of Filters
3.6 IIR Filters
3.7 Trends of a Simple IIR Filter
3.8 Correlation
3.9 Summary
3.10 Review Questions
Sinusoids
4.1 Review of Geometry and Trigonometry
4.2 The Number π
4.3 Unit Circles
4.4 Principal Value of the Phase Shift
4.5 Amplitudes
4.6 Harmonic Signals
4.8 Spectrum
4.9 Summary
4.10 Review Questions
Sampling
5.1 Sampling
5.2 Reconstruction
5.3 Sampling and High-Frequency Noise
5.4 Aliasing
5.4.1 Aliasing Example
5.4.2 Folding
5.4.3 Locations of Replications After Sampling
5.5 Nyquist Rate
5.6 Bandpass Sampling
5.7 Summary
5.8 Review Questions
The Fourier Transform
6.1 Fast Fourier Transform Versus the Discrete Fourier
6.2 The Discrete Fourier Transform
6.3 Plotting the Spectrum
6.5 DFT Shifting Theory
6.6 The Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
6.7 Forward and Inverse DFT
6.8 Leakage
6.9 Harmonics and Fourier Transform
6.10 Sampling Frequency and the Spectrum
6.11 Summary
6.12 Review Questions
The Number e
7.1 Reviewing Complex Numbers
7.2 Some Interesting Properties of j
7.2.1 Rotating Counterclockwise
7.2.2 Rotating Clockwise
7.3 Where Does e Come from?
7.4 Euler’s Formula
7.5 Alternate Form of Euler’s Equation
7.6 Euler’s Inverse Formula
7.7 Manipulating Vectors
7.7.4 Adding Sinusoids of the Same Frequency
7.7.5 Multiplying Complex Numbers
7.8 Adding Rotating Phasors: an Example
7.9 Multiplying Phasors
7.10 Summary
7.11 Review Questions
The z-Transform
8.1 The z-Transform
8.2 Replacing Two FIR Filters in Series
8.3 Revisiting Sequential Filter Combination with z
8.5 What Is z?
Transform
8.7 Powers of −z
8.8 Showing that x[n]∗h[n]↔X(z)H(z)
8.9 Frequency Response of Filters
8.10 Trends of a Simple IIR Filter, Part II
8.11 Summary
8.12 Review Questions
The Wavelet Transform
9.1 The Two-Channel Filter Bank
9.3 How the Haar Transform Is a 45-Degree Rotation
9.3.1 How The Haar Transform Aﬀects a Point’s Radius
9.3.2 How The Haar Transform Aﬀects a Point’s Angle
9.4 Daubechies Four-Coeﬃcient Wavelet
9.5 Down-Sampling and Up-Sampling
9.5.1 Example Using Down/Up-Samplers
9.5.2 Down-Sampling and Up-Sampling with 2 Coeﬃcients
9.5.3 Down-Sampling and Up-Sampling with Daubechies 4
9.6 Breaking a Signal Into Waves
Coeﬃcients
9.8 Orthonormal Bases
9.9 Multiresolution
9.11 Wavelet Transform Theory
9.12 Summary
9.13 Review Questions
10.1 Examples Working with Sound
10.2 Examples Working with Images
10.3 Performing the 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform on
10.3.1 2D DWT of a Grayscale Image
10.3.2 2D DWT of a Color Image
10.4 The Plus/Minus Transform
10.6 Wavelet Transform with Matrices
10.7 Recursively Solving a Su Doku Puzzle
10.8 Converting Decimal to Binary
10.9 Frequency Magnitude Response of Sound
10.10.2 Designing an FIR Filter
10.11 Compression
10.11.1 Experimenting with Compression
10.11.2 Compressing an Image Ourselves
10.12 Summary
10.13 Review Questions
A.1 Constants
A.2 Variables
A.3 Symbols Common in DSP Literature
Equations
B.1 Euler’s Formula
B.2 Trigonometric Identities and Other Math Notes
B.3 Sampling
B.4 Fourier Transform (FT)
B.8 z-Transform
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digital signal processing using matlab and wavelets by michael weeks

# digital signal processing using matlab and wavelets by michael weeks

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Contents
Preface xxi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Why Do We Use a Base 10 Number System? . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Why Do Computers Use Binary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Why Do Programmers Sometimes Use Base 16
(Hexadecimal)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 Other Number Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.5 Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 What Is a Signal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Analog Versus Digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 What Is a System? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5 What Is a Transform? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.6 Why Do We Study Sinusoids? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.7 Sinusoids and Frequency Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.8 Summations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.10 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2 MATLAB 29
2.1 Working with Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2 Getting Help and Writing Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3 MATLAB Programming Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.1 Scalars, Vectors, and Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.2 Number Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.4 Conditional Statements (if) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.5 Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
vii
viii DSP Using MATLAB and Wavelets
2.3.6 Continuing a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4 Arithmetic Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.5 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.6 How NOT to Plot a Sinusoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.7 Plotting a Sinusoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.8 Plotting Sinusoids a Little at a Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.9 Calculating Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.10 Sometimes 0 Is Not Exactly 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.10.1 Comparing Numbers with a Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.10.2 Rounding and Truncating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.11 MATLAB Programming Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.12 MATLAB Programming Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.13 Other Useful MATLAB Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.15 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3 Filters 85
3.1 Parts of a Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2 FIR Filter Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.3 Causality, Linearity, and Time-Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.4 Multiply Accumulate Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.5 Frequency Response of Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.6 IIR Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.7 Trends of a Simple IIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.8 Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
3.10 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4 Sinusoids 133
4.1 Review
Contents
Preface xxi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Why Do We Use a Base 10 Number System? . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Why Do Computers Use Binary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Why Do Programmers Sometimes Use Base 16
(Hexadecimal)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 Other Number Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.5 Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 What Is a Signal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Analog Versus Digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 What Is a System? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5 What Is a Transform? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.6 Why Do We Study Sinusoids? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.7 Sinusoids and Frequency Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.8 Summations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.10 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2 MATLAB 29
2.1 Working with Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2 Getting Help and Writing Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3 MATLAB Programming Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.1 Scalars, Vectors, and Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.2 Number Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.4 Conditional Statements (if) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.5 Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
vii
viii DSP Using MATLAB and Wavelets
2.3.6 Continuing a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4 Arithmetic Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.5 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.6 How NOT to Plot a Sinusoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.7 Plotting a Sinusoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.8 Plotting Sinusoids a Little at a Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.9 Calculating Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.10 Sometimes 0 Is Not Exactly 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.10.1 Comparing Numbers with a Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.10.2 Rounding and Truncating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.11 MATLAB Programming Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.12 MATLAB Programming Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.13 Other Useful MATLAB Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.15 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3 Filters 85
3.1 Parts of a Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2 FIR Filter Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.3 Causality, Linearity, and Time-Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.4 Multiply Accumulate Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.5 Frequency Response of Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.6 IIR Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.7 Trends of a Simple IIR Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.8 Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
3.10 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4 Sinusoids 133
4.1 Review

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08/06/2013

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