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filter harmonic

# filter harmonic

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filter harmonic
filter harmonic

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03/26/2014

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PFC-Formulas
Real energy [kW]

Reactive energy [kvar]

Apparent energy [kVA]

Power factor

Required kvar-power [kvar]

Detuned power factor correction
Calculation of the capacitor nominalvoltage (minimum voltage withstandcapability) - Uc
Un = Grid voltageP = Detuning ratio
Calculation of the capacitor nominalpower - Qc
Nc = Filter-nominal powerUn = Grid voltageUcn = selected capacitor nominal voltage (Ucn> Uc)P = Detuning ratio
Filter frequency - fres
f = Grid frequencyP = Detuning ratio
Filter star capacitance - Cy
Nc = Filter-nominal powerUn = Grid voltageP = Detuning ratiof = Grid frequency
Filter inductance
–
L
P = Detuning ratiof = Grid frequencyCy = Star capacitance
Calculation of resonance points - fr
ST =Transformator-nominal power [kVA]Qc = Nominal power of the capacitor bank [kVAr]uk = Transformator impedancy [%]
Resonance frequency - fres

Hello,I just bought a harmonic filter to mitigate the distortion produced by a 400 HP VFD. The filter consists of some capacitors and 2 line reactors. Here's how it is wired.One line reactor is connected immediately downstream of the main breaker. From there it is connectedto the VFD. Between the VFD and the line reactor, a second filter is connected phase to phase. Thesecond reactor is wired in series with some capacitors, and that series combination is connected line toline. So, between each two phases, there is an LC circuit (not including the resistance of the reactor).So, I have a couple of questions. The first is very basic.1. How does a line reactor absorb high frequency current? I understand that the impedance varies withfrequency. But in order to absorb the high frequency current, something has to absorb real (notreactive) power. There is a tiny DC resistance in the line reactor. Is this the load which absorbs the highfrequency current? Where does the high frequency energy go?Question 2. Why would the circuit be wired such as it is? If I had designed this, I would have put an LCshunt off of each phase, tying one end to ground. The filter I bough makes the connection line toline. And why the two line reactors?thanks in advance
(Electrical) 16 Apr 095:10Sounds like the series L-C is a resonant trap and will be tuned close to a frequency of interest, likely the5th harmonic. The resistor will reduce the Q-factor of the tuned circuit and will limit current if the filteractually goes in to resonance under abnormal supply conditions. The series reactor is a low pass filterwhich presents a rising impedance as harmonic order increases and serves to decouple the drive and itsfilter from the network so you're filtering harmonics from the drive and not trying to flter harmonics fromthe whole network.
----------------------------------If we learn from our mistakes I'm getting a great education!
(Electrical) 16 Apr 098:37ScottyUK  Are you saying that the 5th order harmonic is of interest assuming that the drive is a 6-pulsedrive? What about the 7th harmonic in this case?Can you explain how the series reactor acts as a low pass filter. I understand that the reactor impedencerepresented by XL = jwL will increase with increased frequencies as you mentioned, however what willthis increased impedance do to this high frequency current?
(Electrical) 16 Apr 099:15Thanks for your help. I spent all night studying that circuit and I had come to the same conclusion thatthe LC circuit is a bandpass with a very narrow band, assumed to be centered at 300Hz. I have theresults from a harmonic distortion reading, and the 5th is by far the most prevalent harmonic.

(Electrical) 16 Apr 0910:12Rockman, Yes, low order odd harmonics are of interest if it's a 6-pulse front end. If it's tuned to the 6th and the Q-factor isn't too high then it will trap 5th and 7th without being resonant at either. It's reasonable toexpect that even order harmonics will be negligible in a properly behaving rectifier so the resonance at6th isn't a problem.Low pass filter was perhaps not the best description. It will serve to slow down commutation edges andreduce the production of high order harmonics inherent in fast switching edges.
----------------------------------If we learn from our mistakes I'm getting a great education!
(Electrical) 16 Apr 0911:101. For a 6 pulse drive the filter is typically tuned for 5th order harmonic (typically the highest currentand % fundamental magnitude) which implies that the circuit resonates at approximately 300Hz withsuch a filter. Note, however, that if you do design the filter for that frequency theoretically you can getvery high resonant currents, therefore the filter is typically tuned at 4.7 rather than 5th order harmonicwhich means that the circuit is tuned at approx 282hz to avoid extremely high currents. Now at relativelyhigh frequencies you can view inductance as "open circuit" and capacitance as a "short circuit".Eitherway, Xl=2pifL indicates that effective reactance goes up with frequency therefore limiting current, but theopposite goes for a capacitor since Xc=1/(2pifC). With higher frequency, the Xc goes down reducingreactance. The basic theory behind tuning at a frequency is to match these two up per say (inductancewith capacitance) and have them cancel each other out which in turn provides path of least resistance forcurrents at those frequencies .2. The reason the circuit is being wired this way is to have these resonant frequency currents circulateinside the filter only, if you ground the filter you will provide a path back to the system canceling its verypurpose. .
"Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic! If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic
—
andthis we know it is, for certain
—
then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching theirmachinery to the very wheelwork of nature".
–
Nikola Tesla
(Electrical) 16 Apr 0911:18 Agree 5th harmonic trap is most common. Is this installed in the 50Hz world or the 60Hz world? We'remaking assumptions up to now. 300Hz is 6th harmonic where I work, but 5th harmonic in 60Hz world.
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