THE HUMAN BODY : AN ORIENTATION
This chapter is devoted to the study of internal morphology, body wall and coelom of man. Knowledge of some of these topics may prove useful to the study of human anatomy and physiology.
(Ana – up, Tome – Cutting) Study of internal structure of body with naked eye after dissection.
Gross Anatomy :
Study of large internal structures e.g. Heart, liver, Kidney.(B)
Study of smaller internal structures with the help of microscope. It is divided intotwo branch.(a) Histology – Study of tissues.(b) Cytology – Study of structure of cell.(C)
Developmental Anatomy :
Study of structural changes in an individual from conception to old age.(D)
Pathological Anatomy :
Study of structural changes in cells, tissues and organs due to disease.(E)
Radiography Anatomy :
Study of anatomy by means of radiographic images.
(Physics – Functioning, logos – study)Study of various body functions. e.g. Digestion, respiration, excretion etc.
It has following branches :
Study of physical activities which take place in the body e.g. pumping of heart, contraction of muscles.(B)
Study of chemical changes which take place in the body e.g. hydrolyticbreakdown of food, Breakdown of glucose in respiration, protein synthesis etc.
Both Anatomy and physiology are Complementary to each other because without structurefunctioning can not take place.
Hierarchy of structural organization in humans :
Organisation is a systematic arrangement of smaller and simpler components in to larger and morecomplex ones in a hierarchy of levels, where each higher level is formed of components of lowerlevel and itself becomes a part of still higher level for achieving a common goal.