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THE HUMAN BODY : AN ORIENTATION

THE HUMAN BODY : AN ORIENTATION

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Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 13, 2009
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06/16/2009

 
 THE HUMAN BODY : AN ORIENTATION
This chapter is devoted to the study of internal morphology, body wall and coelom of man. Knowledge of some of these topics may prove useful to the study of human anatomy and physiology.
ANATOMY
 
(Ana – up, Tome – Cutting) Study of internal structure of body with naked eye after dissection.
Branches :
(A)
Gross Anatomy :
Study of large internal structures e.g. Heart, liver, Kidney.(B)
Microanatomy :
Study of smaller internal structures with the help of microscope. It is divided intotwo branch.(a) Histology – Study of tissues.(b) Cytology – Study of structure of cell.(C)
Developmental Anatomy :
Study of structural changes in an individual from conception to old age.(D)
Pathological Anatomy :
Study of structural changes in cells, tissues and organs due to disease.(E)
Radiography Anatomy :
Study of anatomy by means of radiographic images.
PHYSIOLOGY :
(Physics – Functioning, logos – study)Study of various body functions. e.g. Digestion, respiration, excretion etc.
It has following branches :
(A)
Physical Physiology:
Study of physical activities which take place in the body e.g. pumping of heart, contraction of muscles.(B)
Chemical physiology:
Study of chemical changes which take place in the body e.g. hydrolyticbreakdown of food, Breakdown of glucose in respiration, protein synthesis etc.
Note :
Both Anatomy and physiology are Complementary to each other because without structurefunctioning can not take place.
Hierarchy of structural organization in humans :
 Organisation is a systematic arrangement of smaller and simpler components in to larger and morecomplex ones in a hierarchy of levels, where each higher level is formed of components of lowerlevel and itself becomes a part of still higher level for achieving a common goal.
 
 Following types of organization found in humans :
(A)
Atomic level :
It is a basic unit of organization in human beings. An atom is made up of smaller orsubatomic particles like electrons, protons and neutrons e.g. Atoms of C, H, O, N.(B)
Molecular level :
Atoms become associated to form molecules. The molecules found in livingsystem are known as biomolecules.e.g. – Molecules of protein, lipid, starch etc.(C)
Sub cellular level
– Different biomolecules combine to form cell organelles e.g. cell membrane,mitochondria etc.(D)
Cellular level :
Cell organelles associate to each other and form cell which is the structural andfunctional unit of human body. e.g. muscle cell, nerve cell etc.(E)
Tissue level :
Cells are organised into tissue each of which has a common origin and function.e.g. Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissue.(F)
Organ level :
Tissues are aggregated to form organs, each with a specific function.e.g. Kidney, Heart etc.(G)
Organ System level :
Organs coordinate their functioning to form an organ system e.g. Digestive,respiratory and excretory system.(H)
Organismic or Individual level :
A distinct entity or individual is formed by the integration of organ systems.
 
 
Maintenance of life
The human beings share certain unified and basic characteristics like maintenance of boundaries byintegumentary system due to which internal environment remains distinct from the external environment Italso protects internal organs from drying out and being invaded by foreign agents. Some functionalcharacteristics are as follows :(i)
Cellular Structure
. Each living being is a complex entity which is formed of one or more cells.(ii)
Organisation.
It has an organization, that is, the living being consists of several components whichcooperate with one another for the well being of the whole organism.(iii)
 
Energy.
It constantly receives energy not only to perform various activities of the body but also toovercome entropy or tendency to randomness.

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