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0534-00120003235S

0534-00120003235S

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Published by Ekologija Izvor

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Published by: Ekologija Izvor on Feb 02, 2013
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LJDC
575.21;575.222.7
Originalscientificpaper
YUGOSLAVLOCAL
GERM
PLASM
INHYBRIDMAIZEBREEDING
MilisavSTOJAKOV[C,BordeJOCKOVIC,GoranBEKAVAC,AleksandraNASTASIC,NenadVASIC,andBozanaPURARInstitute
of
FieldandVegetableCrops,M.Gorkog30,21000NoviSad,YugoslaviaMilisavStojakovic,BordeJockovic,GoranBekavac,AleksandraNastasic,NenadVasic,andBozanaPurar(2000):
Yugoslavlocalgerm-plasminhybridmaizebreeding.
-
Genetika,Vol.32,
No.3,
235-244.Whenthespread
of
hybridmaizebeganinthemid-20
th
century,localbreedingmaterialswerecollectedandassembledingenebanksinordertopreventtheirdeteriorationandenabletheirutilizationinbreedingtodevelophybridvarieties.Numerousinbredlinesfromlocalpopulationswereselected.Thepresentstudyincludesonlythoselinesfromthefirstcycle
of
selectionthatwereusedforthedevelopment
of
commercialhybrids.Thecontribution
of
domesticinbredlinestomodernmaizebreedingconsists
in
thefollowing:I)Domesticinbredlinespossessgreatvariabilityformost
of
theagronomicallyimportanttraits.Innearlyeverygroup
of
lines(lines
of
thesameorigincompriseonegroup),lineswithdesirabletraitshavebeenfound,linesthatnowrepresentnewsources
of
variabilityinbreedingprogramson:grainyield,resistancetolodging,earlymaturity,earbareness,grainquality,andothertraits.2)Thedomesticinbredsdiffer
in
theirheteroticpotentialforgrainyieldwhencrossedwiththeinbredtestersB73(BSSSgermplasm)andMo17(LancasterSureCropgermplasm).LinesoriginatingfromthepopulationsVukovarskiZutiZuban,SidskiZutiZuban,NovosadskiZiatniZuban,andNovosadskiZutiZubancombinebetterwiththeinbredtesterMo17thanwithB73,sotheybelongtotheBSSSheteroticgroup.LinesoriginatingfromthepopulationsBankutBajsaandSociceareneutral,i.e.theyre-
Correspondingauthor:
MilisavStojakovic,Institute
ofField
andVegetableCrops,M.Gorkog30,21000NoviSad,Yugoslavia
 
236
GENETIKA,
Vol.
32,No.3,
235-244,
2000.
spondequallytobothtypes
of
gerrnplasm(BSSSandLancaster),sothey.canbesaidtobelongtoanewheteroticgroup.
Keywords:
maizegermplasm,heterosis.heteroticgroups
INTRODUCTION
The
identity
of
maizeracesthatwerefirstgrowninsoutheasternEuropeisnotquiteclear.ThefirstmaizegenotypesgrowninYugoslaviaweretheflintmaizeracesfromtheCaribbeanislandsandtheWest
Indies-
EarlyCaribbeanandCoastalTropicalFlint,whichweregrowningardensasavegetablecropinthe16
1h
century(LANG
etal.,
1962;
PAVLlCIC
and
TRIFUNOVIC",
1966).Flintgenotypesfrom
Canada
and
New
EnglandarrivedinYugoslaviainthe
is"
centuryviaFranceandcentralEurope
(BRANDOLlNl,
1968).Then,inthe19
th
and
zo"
century.dentmaizefromtheUSMaizeBeltwasintroduced,andthatwas
the
lastgreatintroduction
of
maizegerrnplasmtoYugoslaviathatwas
of
anyimportancefortheformation
of
auniquedent-typemaize
(TRIFUNOVIC,
1978).TheselectedUSdentvarietiesGoldenMineandQueen
of
Prairiewereintroducedatthe
begining
of20
lh
century.
In
parallelwiththeirintroductionintoproduction,they
were
subjectedtointensiveselection,andsomeyearslaterthelocal
open
pollinatedpopulationsRumskiZlatniZuban,VukovarskiZutiZuban,andFlajsmanov
Zuban
(FLEISCHMANN,
1918,1942)aswellasBeljskiZiatni
Zuban
andNovosadskiZiatniZubanwereselected
(GlBSMAN,
1956).AllYugoslavmaizegermplasmhasbeenclassifiedinto16basicand2recentlyevolvedgroups
( P A V L I C K ~
and
TRIFUNOVIC,
1966).Duringthefivecenturies
of
maizeevolutionin
Yugoslavia
undervariousclimaticconditions,awidevariety
of
maizepopulationshavebeendevelopedthroughhybridization,selection,andadaptation.Because
of
theirfavourableadaptationtoagivenset
of
agroecologicalconditions,localpopulationsrepresentedvaluableselectionmaterialsthatneededtobecollected,assessed,andclassifiedinordertopreventtheirdeteriorationandenabletheirutilizationinthe
development
of
hybridvarietiesthatarethefoundationstones
of
modernmaizeproduction.Thispaperwilldescribethemaincharacteristics
of
maizeinbredlinesderivedfromlocalpopulationsandtheirimportanceforpresent-dayhybridmaizebreeding.
MATERIALSANDMETHODSThe
firstdomesticinbredlinesweredevelopedfromthelocalpopulationsNovosadskiZlatniZuban,NovosadskiZutiZuban,Vukovarski
Zuti
Zubanandothersinthemid-20
th
centuryusingpedigreeselection(SA
RIC
etal.,
1980).Thosewerethelinesfromthefirstcycle
of
selection.Aftertestingfortolerancetodrought,severity
of
infectionbythecausalagents
of
leaf
spot
andstem,root,andearrots,aswellashybridyieldpotential,57inbredswereselectedfromaset
of
1271inbredlinesbetween1962and1964.Forthepresentstudy,wechose35inbredlinesderivedfromthepopulationsNovosadskiZlatni
Zuban
(6lines),NovosadskiZutiZuban(10lines),VukovarskiZutiZuban(6lines),BankutBajsa(4
 
MSrOJAKOVIC
etal.:
LOCALGERMPLASMINHYBRIDMAIZEBREEDING
237lines),Socice(5lines),andSidskiZutiZuban(4lines)thatwereusedasparentalcomponentsinthedevelopment
of
commercialhybrids.
Experiment
t-
Afterharvestingin1997,earlength(ern),
cob
percentage,100-grainmass(gr),graintype,andgraincolorwereanalyzedin10randomlyselectedearsperinbredline.Thestemlodgingandbarrenplantpercentagesweredetermined,basedonthenumber
of
plantsbrokenbelowtheuppermostearandthenumber
of
plantswithoutears,respectively.Theexperimentalplotwas20m
2
insizeandplantdensity57,I00plantsperhectare.
«The
number
of
brokenorbarrenplantsperplot/thetotalnumber
of
plantsperexperimental)x100).Thesignificance
of
themeanvalueswasestimatedusingthet-testfor
P=95%
and29degrees
of
freedom.
Experiment
2-Theanalyzedmaizeinbredsobtainedfromdifferentlocalpopulationsarepresentedonthebasis
of
polymorphism
of
seven
enzyme
systems:GIll,ACP,MDH,PHI,PGM,PGDandIHDandtheirisozymes,thedirectproducts
of
IImappedgenesandtheirallelicvariantsaccordingto
STUBER
etal.
(1988).Several-day-oldseedlingswereanalyzedandbyelectrophoresisandtheisoenzymeexpression
of
genesandtheiralleleswasobtained.Asinglelinkagebetweeninbredlinesandclusteranalysiswasdeterminedfortheallelesfoundonthebasis
of
Euclidiandistance.
Experiment
3-In1996,twoseparatespatialisolationswereusedtocrossinbredlineswithtwotesters.Thegrainyield
of
SChybridsfromcrossesbetween35inbredsandtwoinbredtesters
(873
andMo17)wasstudiedintrialscarriedoutatRimskiSanceviduring1997and1998.Thetrialswereconductedonchernozemsoilaccordingtoarandomizedblockdesignwiththreereplicates.Theexperimentsweresetupon19April,1997and25April,1998.Theexperimentalplotincludedtworows
of
20hillswithtwokernelsperhill.Therowswerespaced0.7mapartandthehills0.25mapart.Thehillswerethinnedtooneplantafteremergenceforafinalplantdensity
of
approximately57,000plants
ha".
Datawerecollectedforgrainyield(kg
ha'
at14%moisture).Thestandardmaizegrowingtechnologywasusedandbothsowingandharvestingweredonebyhand.Allanalysesweremadeusingthe
MST
ATpackage.RESULTS
Mean
values
and
variability
of
traits.
-Lessthan1%
of
thetotalnumber
of
lines
of
domesticoriginfromthefirstcycle
of
selectionwerechosenforthisstudy.Eveninsuchasmallsample(35lines),however,greatvariabilitywasfoundformost
of
theagronomictraits.Ineverygroup
of
lines(whichconsisted
of
lines
of
thesameorigin),therewerelineswithoneormoredesirabletraits.Thelowestandhighestnumbers
of
lodgedplantswerefoundintheinbredlinesoriginatingfromthelocalpopulationsSidskiZutiZubanandSocice(2.0and11.5%,respectively)(TableIand2).SignificantdifferenceswerealsofoundamongthelinesoriginatingfromthepopulationsNovosadskiZiatniZubanandSocice(Table2).Inbredlineswith0.0%
of
lodgedplantswereselectedfromthepopulationsVukovarskiZutiZuban,SidskiZutiZuban,andNovosadskiZuti

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