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Soybean Oil

Soybean Oil

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Published by Sabrina Der
Earl G. Hammond, Lawrence A. Johnson, Caiping Su,
Tong Wang, and Pamela J. White
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa
Earl G. Hammond, Lawrence A. Johnson, Caiping Su,
Tong Wang, and Pamela J. White
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa

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Published by: Sabrina Der on Feb 02, 2013
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13
Soybean Oil
Earl G. Hammond, Lawrence A. Johnson, Caiping Su,Tong Wang, and Pamela J. White
 Iowa State University Ames, Iowa
1. INTRODUCTION
The amounts of soybeans and total vegetable oil crops have been rising for anumber of years. World production of soybeans in 2003 was estimated to be184.49 million MT out of 317.89 million MT total for vegetable oil crops, makingsoybeans the world’s largest oilseed crop, rivaled only by palm oil (1). The 2003crop of soybeans was expected to yield 29.85 million MT of soybean oil out of atotal of 91.79 million MT of vegetable oil worldwide. The U.S. production of soybean oil was estimated at 8.59 million MT for 2002, of which 7.86 millionMT was consumed domestically. During 2002–2003, Brazil produced 4.90 millionMT and Argentina 4.12 million MT of soybean oil (2). The U.S. price of crudesoybean oil has varied from $0.24/kg to $0.62/kg over the past 5 years with thelower prices being more recent (1).Soybeans owe their dominance of the oilseed market to the value of their protein,which is much greater than that of other oilseeds. Of the oilseed meals produced in2003, 129.58 million MT out of a total of 185.69 milllion MT was soybean meal(1). Of the money made on extracting soybeans, the meal accounted for between51% and 76% of the total in the last 10 years. Soybean oil of typical compositionperforms well as a salad oil, but it is usually hydrogenated for use as a margarinestock or frying oil. Soybean oil’s stability to oxidation also is limited by its content
 Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Sixth Edition,
Six Volume Set.Edited by Fereidoon Shahidi. Copyright
#
2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
577 
 
of linolenic acid. Recent decades have witnessed numerous attempts to manipulatethe fatty acid composition of soybean oil to help it compete better in various uses,but the cost of growing, segregating, and testing special varieties and resistance togenetically modified oils have limited the appeal of these altered varieties.
2. COMPOSITION OF SOYBEANS
Table 1 shows the average composition of soybean seed (oil, protein, and someamino acids) grown in the United States during recent years (3). Aside from varietaldifferences, the composition is affected by various geographic/environmental fac-tors. According to Hurburgh (5), ‘‘oil is much more variable than protein from year-to-year. States most distant from the center of the Corn Belt (probably those withthe greatest weather extremes) experience the most variability in composition.Table 2 lists some of the environmental and cultivation practices that have an
TABLE 1. Typical Composition (wt%
Æ
std. dev.)of Soybeans (dry weight basis) (3).
Protein 40.69
Æ
0.51Lysine 2.56
Æ
0.11Methionine 0.57
Æ
0.03Cysteine 0.72
Æ
0.06Tryptophane 0.52
Æ
0.05Threonine 1.54
Æ
0.07Oil 21.38
Æ
0.64Ash 4.56
Æ
0.34 (4)Carbohydrate 29.4
Æ
3.29 (4)
TABLE 2. Soybean Protein and Oil Responses to VariousEnvironmental and Cultivation Practices (3).
Variable Protein OilHigh temperatures ?
a
Early season drought
þ
Late season drought
þ
Early frost/cold temperature
b
Additional soil nitrogen
þ
Increased fertility (P,S)
þ þ
Late planting
þ
Insect defoliation Insect depodding
þ
?Rhizobium inoculation
þ
a
?
¼
inconclusive;
þ ¼
increase;
À ¼
decrease.
b
Oil is reduced because of refining loss to remove chlorophyll.
57
SOYBEAN OIL
 
observable effect on soybean protein and oil percentages. Maestri et al. (6) grewsoybean cultivars in several regions of Argentina and concluded that the proteinand oil contents were positively correlated with altitude. Protein was negatively cor-related with latitude and precipitation, and oil was negatively correlated with tem-perature and precipitation. Oil content in soybeans tends to be negatively correlatedwith protein, but breeding soybeans for high protein while maintaining oil contenthas been a priority of the U.S. soybean producers, and some progress has beenachieved (7, 8). The variety Prolina reportedly produces 22.7% oil and 45.5% pro-tein on a dry weight basis. There also has been interest in reducing the oligosac-charides that cause
atulence and reduce the digestibility and nutritive value of soybeans.Iso
avones are minor constituents of soybeans whose consumption is believed tohave bene
cial effects (9
11). The bene
ts of iso
avones have encouraged thedirect consumption of soy protein in the United States. The concentration of iso
avones changes with variety and growing conditions and has been reportedto be 1.2
2.5 mg/g in U.S. beans (9), 0.5
2.3 mg/g in Korean beans (10), and0.2
3.5 mg/g in Japanese beans (11).Table 3 shows the typical composition of the lipid phase of soybeans. Triacyl-glycerols are the primary component. The 3.7% phospholipids content in the soybeans is higher than that usually found in hexane-extracted oil, which is typically
TABLE 3. Typical Composition of Crude Soybean Oil.
Component % Std. Dev.Triacylglycerol 94.4
a
1.4Phospholipids 3.7
b
1.2 (12)Unsaponifable matter (13
15) 1.3
1.6Sterols
c
(16) 0.236 0.053Campesterol 0.059 0.018Stigmasterol 0.054 0.013
ß
-Sitosterol 0.123 0.027
Á
5-Avenasterol (17) 0.005
Á
7-stigmasterol (17) 0.005
Á
7-avenasterol (17) 0.002Tocopherols (16) 0.123 0.040Alpha 0.0093 0.0044Beta 0.0018 0.0028Gamma 0.0834 0.036Delta 0.029 0.010Hydrocarbons (14, 15) 0.38Free fatty acids (18) 0.3
0.7Trace metals (18) ppmIron 1
3Copper 0.03
0.05
a
By difference.
b
Based on 23 varieties chosen to represent a wide fatty acid composition.
c
Based on 13 varieties chosen to represent a wide range of composition.
COMPOSITION OF SOYBEANS 
57

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