CPM and PERT: Introduction of PERT and CPM, Planning scheduling and controlling, bar charts, PERTand CPM networks.Management is continually seeking new and better control techniques to cope with thecomplexities, masses of data, and tight deadlines that are characteristic of highly competitiveindustries. Managers also want better methods for presenting technical and cost data to customers.Scheduling techniques help achieve these goals. The most common techniques are1.
Gantt or bar charts2.
Line of balance4.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)6.
Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) [Critical Path Method (CPM)]7.
Precedence Diagram Method (PDM)8.
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)Advantages of network scheduling techniques include1.
They form the basis for all planning and predicting and help management decide how to useits resources to achieve time and cost goals.2.
They provide visibility and enable management to control “one
They help management evaluate alternatives by answering such questions as how timedelays will influence project completion, where slack exists between elements, and whatelements are crucial to meet the completion date.4.
They provide a basis for obtaining facts for decision-making.5.
They utilize a so-called time network analysis as the basic method to determine manpower,material, and capital requirements, as well as to provide a means for checking progress.6.
They provide the basic structure for reporting information.7.
They reveal interdependencies of activities.8.
They facilitate “what if” exercises.
They identify the longest path or critical paths.10.
They aid in scheduling risk analysis.The three basic project planning techniques are Gantt chart, CPM and PERT. All monitor progressand costs against resource budgets.
Gantt charts are also called Bar charts. The use of Gantt charts started during the industrialrevolution of the late 1800's. An early industrial engineer named Henry Gantt developed thesecharts to improve factory efficiency.