hours a day.
15.- Doctor: I can't come now. Caller: You ____ come; he's 1.- His fiancée writes to him every day. She must...terribly ill. 2.- I don't seem to have my key with me. I must have ...
8) Obligation and prohibition: must, mustn't, have to or
have got to.
4.- No one thought he would be offered the job, but he was.
Complete the sentences with must, mustn't, or a
The person who interviewed him must have...
suitable form of have to or have got to.
5.- He has no idea what the book is about. He can't have...1.- We ____ hurry, or we'll be late. 6.- He talks about going to the moon next year. He must...2.- 'Application forms ____ be returned to this office within 7.- She didn't reply to his letter. She can't have ...15 days.' 8.- He wears glasses all the time. His eyes can't...3.- You ____ visit us again some time. 9.- They haven't been on speaking terms recently. They4.- I can never remember people's phone numbers. I always must have... ____ look them up. 10.- He said he would ring, but he hasn't. He must have...5.- The car broke down, and we ____ have it towed to agarage.
13) Advice and duty: should, ought to, had better.
6.- The situation has now become intolerable, and
Respond to the statements by giving advice or
something ____ be done about it immediately.
7.-I realize how difficult the situation is, but you ____ try
recommendation, using should, ought to, or 'd better,
not to let it get you down.
with a suitable infinitive form, e.g.
8.- 'Visas where required ____ be obtained in advance of
I've got toothache.- You'd better go to the dentist.
travel to the countries concerned.
He's failed his exam.- He should have worked harder.
9.- I'm sorry to ____ tell you this, but you leave me no 1.- John's terribly overweight.alternative. 2.- You're always late for work!10.- It's not fair! I always ____ do the dirty work 3.- Our train leaves in a few minutes.
9) Prohibition / Absence of obligation: mustn't /
5.- Someone's stolen my wallet!
needn't, not need to, not have to.
6.- The rain is coming through the roof.1.- You ____ ring the bell; I have a key. 7.- Our tent was always getting blown down when we were2.- Notice in cinema: Exit doors ____ be locked during on holiday.performances. 8.- Mary got terribly sunburnt yesterday.3.- You ____ drink this: it is poison. 9.- We're spending our holidays in Spain next summer.4.- We ____ drive fast; we have plenty of time. 10.- This suit of mine is just about done for!5.- You ____ drive fast; there is a speed limit here.6.- Candidates ____ bring books into the examination
14) Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives
Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with
7.- You ____ write to him for he will be here tomorrow.
a suitable auxiliary verb:
8.- We ____ make any noise or we'll wake the baby.
I've never seen a London policeman.-
9.- You ____ bring an umbrella. It isn't going to rain.
You (see) one! You've been in London a week already.
10.- You ____ do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be
You must have seen one.
Note that not placed before the verb in brackets refers10) Absence of obligation: needn't, not need to, not
I heard their phone ringing.-
have to. Rewrite the clauses in italics, using needn't
You (not hear) their phone ringing. They haven't got a
or a suitable negative form of have to or need to.
phone. You couldn't have heard their phone ringing.
1.- It isn't necessary for us to leave so soon. The show 1.- Jack: I've finished. Ann: but you were only half waydoesn't start till eight. through when I went to bed. You (work) all night!2.- You're not obliged to come just to please me. 2.- The instructions were in French. I translated them into3.- I don't think it's necessary for us to take his threats too English for him.- You (not translate) them. He knowsseriously. French.4.- It isn't necessary for you to decide immediately. You 3.- Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and nowcan let me know tomorrow. it's 8.00 and there's no sign of him. Ann: He (forget) that5.- It's a public holiday tomorrow, so you're not obliged to we invited him. He is rather forgetful. I (telephone) himgo to work. yesterday to remind him. (It was foolish of me not to6.- You're not obliged to take my word for it. You can go telephone.)and see for yourself. 4.- Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasn't been to this house7.- If we get everything ready now, we shan't be obliged to before. I (give) directions. (I didn't give him directions, whichrush around doing everything at the last minute. was stupid of me.) Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a8.- If you listened more carefully, it wouldn't be necessary puncture. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long.for me to keep repeating things just for your benefit. 5.- Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an9.- He doesn't know what work is. He's never be obliged to argument. Jack's arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or heearn his own living. (run) out of petrol. Perhaps we'd better go and look for him.10.- You're not obliged to do everything he tells you, are 6.- You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feedyou? them.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed
11) Deduction: must / can't
7.- Nobody has been in this house for a month.-
The hunter drops his tenth victim into his bag. He looks up
Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper
into the sky, shielding his eyes against the glare, and
basket; somebody (be) here quite recently.
waits. There is no sound at all.
8.- Two of the players spent the night before the big match
Answer the following questions using must or can't
at a party.- That was very foolish of them. They (go) to bed
and giving the reasons for your deduction.
e.g. Is the hunter near a town?
9.- He says that when walking across Kensington
- No, he can't be near a town, since there is no
Gardens he was attacked by wolves.- He (not be attacked)
sound at all.
by wolves. There aren't any wolves in Kensington. He (see)1.- Is the man hunting birds or animals? some Alsatian dogs and (think) they were wolves.2.- Is it a dull day? 10.- I waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock and he3.- Is he an expert or a beginner? says he waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock, and we4.- Do you think he is satisfied with the day's hunting? didn't see each other!- You (wait) under different clocks!
12) Deduction: must / can't
11.- He set off alone a month ago and hasn't been heard of
Complete the responses to the statements, using must
since.- He (fall) into a river and (be eaten) by crocodiles.-
or can't, to suggest what seems to be the most likely
Or (be kidnapped) by tribesmen.- Or (catch) fever and (die)3.- He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. They4.- Peter was involved in an accident with his car.
to the auxiliary verb:
them too.There are two in the station, you know.