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modals bachillerato

modals bachillerato

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Published by Victoria Myburgh

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Published by: Victoria Myburgh on Feb 04, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1) Auxiliaries: mixedFill each of the following gaps with a suitableauxiliary or auxiliary form:
1.- Schoolboy to friend: I left my book at home. ____ I shareyours?2.- I'm taking swimming lessons. I hope to ____ swim bythe end of the month.3.- You ____ better take off your wet shoes.4.- I'm sorry I'm late. I ____ to wait ages for a bus.5.- Teacher: You ____ (obligation) read the play, but you ____ (no obligation) read the preface.6.- I knew he was wrong but I ____ (hadn't the courage) totell him so.7.- You're getting fat. You ____ to cut down on your beer drinking.8.- I've come without any money. ____ you possibly lendme £5?9.- Ann: ____ we meet at Piccadilly Circus?10 Tom: It ____ be better to meet at the theatre. We ____ miss one another at Piccadilly.11.- ____you like to come canoeing with me nextweekend?12.- Mary: I ____ to pay 20p. for this little chap on the busyesterday.13.- Ann: My little boy's under three so I ____ (Noobligation. Use present tense) to pay for him.14.- You've spelt it wrong. There ____ be another 's'.15.- You ____told me! (I'm disappointed that you didn't tellme.)16.- We ____ to take a taxi. Otherwise we'll be late.17.- At the holiday camp we ____ to get up at six andbathe in the river.18.- Tom ____ know the address. (Tom probably knows.)19.- Tom ____ know the address. (I'm sure that Tomknows.)20.- I've lost my umbrella! I ____ left it on the bus!21.- Theatre regulations: At the end of the performance thepublic ____ (are permitted to) leave by all exit doors.22.- You ____ (negative) to be driving so fast. There's aspeed limit here.23.- You ____ (request) get me some aspirin when you'reat the chemist's.
2) Ability: can and be able.Fill in the following spaces, using can for present,could for past and shall/will be able for future. Thereis no need to use other able forms in this section. Putto where necessary before the infinitives:
1.- _____ you stand on your head? - I _____ when I was atschool but I ____ now (2nd verb negative)2.- When I've passed my driving test I _____ hire a car fromour local garage.3.- At the end of the month the Post Office will send himan enormous telephone bill which he ____ pay. (negative)4.- I ____ remember the address.5.- When the fog lifts we ____ see where we are.6.- You've put too much in your rucksack; you never _____ carry all that.7.- When I was a child I ____ understand adults, and nowthat I am an adult I ____ understand children. (negative,negative)8.- When you have taken your degrees you ____ put lettersafter your name?9.- Don't try to look at all the pictures in the gallery.Otherwise when you get home you ____ remember any of them. (negative)10.- When I first went to Spain I ____ read Spanish but I ____ speak it. (2nd verb negative)
3) Ability: could and was ableIn some of the following sentences either could or wasable could be used. In other only was/were able ispossible. Fill the spaces and put to where necessarybefore the infinitives.
11.- He was very strong; he ____ ski all day and dance allnight. 13.- The car plunged into the river. The driver ____ get out but the passengers were drowned.14.- I was a long way from the stage. I ____ see all rightbut I ____ hear very well. (2nd verb negative)15.- We ____ borrow umbrellas; so we didn't get wet.16.- ____ you walk or did they have to carry you?17.- I had no key so I ____ lock the door. (negative)18.- I knew the town so I ____ advise him where to go.19.- When the garage had repaired our car we ____ continue our journey.20.- At five years old he ____ read quite well.
4) Factual possibility: may, might, could.Replace the words in italics with a clause using may,might or could.
1.- Perhaps you will find you have made a mistake.2.- It is just conceivable that we shall get an answer tomorrow.3.- Accept his offer now. It is just possible that he willchange his mind later.4.- Owing to the strike, trains will possibly be subject todelays. 5.- It is possible that parents will find that theycannot understand the way their children are now beingtaught.6.- We shall possibly find we can't get accommodation, aswe haven't booked rooms.7.- As your bank manager. He will perhaps be able toadvise you better than I can.8.- Let's not wait any longer. It's possible that he won't turnup at all.9.- It's not impossible that the Government's policy willprove to be little short of disastrous.10.- It is quite possible that getting the two sides to agreewill not be as easy as some people imagine.5
) Theoretical possibility: can, couldReplace the words in italics, using can or couldtogether with the words given in brackets, e.g.
Learning a foreign language isn't always easy.(sometimes difficult)Learning a foreign language can sometimes be difficult.
1.- She doesn't always remember everything. (quiteforgetful)2.- Holidays abroad aren't necessarily expensive. (quitecheap)3.- Racial harmony isn't always easy to achieve. (difficult)4.- When I was at school, discipline wasn't generally lax.(very strict)5.- He wasn't miserable all the time. (occasionally, quitehigh-spirited)6.- September isn't by any means a bad month for taking aholiday in England. (wonderful)7.- Students at university don't always approve of the waytheir courses are run. (very critical)8.- One-way traffic systems aren't always as clear as theymight be for a foreign driver. (very confusing)9.- She doesn't always look so plain. (quite pretty at times)10.- English cooking isn't necessarily bad. (in fact,excellent)
7) Obligation : must and have to.Fill in the spaces in the following sentences byinserting must or the present, future, or past form ofhave to.
1.- She ____ leave home at eight every morning at present.2.- Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks andumbrellas ____ be left at the desk.3.- He sees very badly; he ____ wear glasses all the time.4.- I ____ do all the typing at my office.5.- You ____ read this book. It's really excellent.6.- The children ____ play in the streets till their mothersget home from work.7.- She felt ill and ____ leave early.8.- Mr Pitt ____ cook his own meals. His wife is away.9.- I hadn't enough money and I ____ pay by cheque.10.- I Never remember his address; I always ____ look itup.11.- Employer: You ____ come to work in time.12.- If you go to the dentist with a private practice you ____ pay him quite a lot of money.13.- Father to small son: You ____do what Mummy says.14.- My neighbour's child ____ practice the piano for three
hours a day.
15.- Doctor: I can't come now. Caller: You ____ come; he's 1.- His fiancée writes to him every day. She must...terribly ill. 2.- I don't seem to have my key with me. I must have ...
8) Obligation and prohibition: must, mustn't, have to or
have got to.
4.- No one thought he would be offered the job, but he was.
Complete the sentences with must, mustn't, or a
The person who interviewed him must have...
suitable form of have to or have got to.
5.- He has no idea what the book is about. He can't have...1.- We ____ hurry, or we'll be late. 6.- He talks about going to the moon next year. He must...2.- 'Application forms ____ be returned to this office within 7.- She didn't reply to his letter. She can't have ...15 days.' 8.- He wears glasses all the time. His eyes can't...3.- You ____ visit us again some time. 9.- They haven't been on speaking terms recently. They4.- I can never remember people's phone numbers. I always must have... ____ look them up. 10.- He said he would ring, but he hasn't. He must have...5.- The car broke down, and we ____ have it towed to agarage.
13) Advice and duty: should, ought to, had better.
6.- The situation has now become intolerable, and
Respond to the statements by giving advice or
something ____ be done about it immediately.
making a
7.-I realize how difficult the situation is, but you ____ try
recommendation, using should, ought to, or 'd better,
not to let it get you down.
with a suitable infinitive form, e.g.
8.- 'Visas where required ____ be obtained in advance of 
I've got toothache.- You'd better go to the dentist.
travel to the countries concerned.
He's failed his exam.- He should have worked harder.
9.- I'm sorry to ____ tell you this, but you leave me no 1.- John's terribly overweight.alternative. 2.- You're always late for work!10.- It's not fair! I always ____ do the dirty work 3.- Our train leaves in a few minutes.
9) Prohibition / Absence of obligation: mustn't /
5.- Someone's stolen my wallet!
needn't, not need to, not have to.
6.- The rain is coming through the roof.1.- You ____ ring the bell; I have a key. 7.- Our tent was always getting blown down when we were2.- Notice in cinema: Exit doors ____ be locked during on holiday.performances. 8.- Mary got terribly sunburnt yesterday.3.- You ____ drink this: it is poison. 9.- We're spending our holidays in Spain next summer.4.- We ____ drive fast; we have plenty of time. 10.- This suit of mine is just about done for!5.- You ____ drive fast; there is a speed limit here.6.- Candidates ____ bring books into the examination
14) Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives
Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with
7.- You ____ write to him for he will be here tomorrow.
a suitable auxiliary verb:
8.- We ____ make any noise or we'll wake the baby.
I've never seen a London policeman.- 
9.- You ____ bring an umbrella. It isn't going to rain.
You (see) one! You've been in London a week already.
10.- You ____ do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be
You must have seen one.
Note that not placed before the verb in brackets refers10) Absence of obligation: needn't, not need to, not
I heard their phone ringing.- 
have to. Rewrite the clauses in italics, using needn't
You (not hear) their phone ringing. They haven't got a 
or a suitable negative form of have to or need to.
phone. You couldn't have heard their phone ringing.
1.- It isn't necessary for us to leave so soon. The show 1.- Jack: I've finished. Ann: but you were only half waydoesn't start till eight. through when I went to bed. You (work) all night!2.- You're not obliged to come just to please me. 2.- The instructions were in French. I translated them into3.- I don't think it's necessary for us to take his threats too English for him.- You (not translate) them. He knowsseriously. French.4.- It isn't necessary for you to decide immediately. You 3.- Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and nowcan let me know tomorrow. it's 8.00 and there's no sign of him. Ann: He (forget) that5.- It's a public holiday tomorrow, so you're not obliged to we invited him. He is rather forgetful. I (telephone) himgo to work. yesterday to remind him. (It was foolish of me not to6.- You're not obliged to take my word for it. You can go telephone.)and see for yourself. 4.- Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasn't been to this house7.- If we get everything ready now, we shan't be obliged to before. I (give) directions. (I didn't give him directions, whichrush around doing everything at the last minute. was stupid of me.) Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a8.- If you listened more carefully, it wouldn't be necessary puncture. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long.for me to keep repeating things just for your benefit. 5.- Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an9.- He doesn't know what work is. He's never be obliged to argument. Jack's arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or heearn his own living. (run) out of petrol. Perhaps we'd better go and look for him.10.- You're not obliged to do everything he tells you, are 6.- You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feedyou? them.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed
11) Deduction: must / can't
7.- Nobody has been in this house for a month.-
The hunter drops his tenth victim into his bag. He looks up 
Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper 
into the sky, shielding his eyes against the glare, and 
basket; somebody (be) here quite recently.
waits. There is no sound at all.
8.- Two of the players spent the night before the big match
Answer the following questions using must or can't
at a party.- That was very foolish of them. They (go) to bed
and giving the reasons for your deduction.
e.g. Is the hunter near a town? 
9.- He says that when walking across Kensington
- No, he can't be near a town, since there is no 
Gardens he was attacked by wolves.- He (not be attacked)
sound at all.
by wolves. There aren't any wolves in Kensington. He (see)1.- Is the man hunting birds or animals? some Alsatian dogs and (think) they were wolves.2.- Is it a dull day? 10.- I waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock and he3.- Is he an expert or a beginner? says he waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock, and we4.- Do you think he is satisfied with the day's hunting? didn't see each other!- You (wait) under different clocks!
12) Deduction: must / can't
11.- He set off alone a month ago and hasn't been heard of 
Complete the responses to the statements, using must
since.- He (fall) into a river and (be eaten) by crocodiles.-
or can't, to suggest what seems to be the most likely
Or (be kidnapped) by tribesmen.- Or (catch) fever and (die)3.- He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. They4.- Peter was involved in an accident with his car.
to the auxiliary verb:
them too.There are two in the station, you know.

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