(MWD), and degree of linearity, all of which do affectthe end-product properties.Furthermore, the orientation process (which isachieved by the spinning and drawing steps) is dis-cussed since such technology serves to significantlyimprove the fiber tensiJe strength.
There are various methods in preparing a polymer;nylon
is synthesized via condensation polymeri-zation. The two monomers used for making nylon
are hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and adipic acid(AA). Both are soluble in water, and both aqueoussolutions are miscible and stable at ambient conditionswith a solid content of about
Upon heating to180°C the carboxyl and amine groups will react toform one molecule, namely, hexamethylene diam-monium adipate, or a nylon salt:
This salt is unstable at high temperatures since itwill split
a water molecule to become nylon
Subsequently, the condensation polymerization takesplace:
Generally, the rate of the condensation polymerizationis relatively slow, and the reaction will continue untilall or one of the reactants is consumed. Since thecharged amount of reactants
stoichiometricallycontrolled, the degree of polymerization
predicted. However, the theoretical approach does notalways conform with the actual field practice, and
an access amount of AA is charged.
the reaction continues, water released from re-action in the system is accumulating, which needs tobe removed by vacuum or slow venting. While wateris being removed, the viscosity or the system in-creases, thus slowing down the reaction. For a de-sired high molecular weight, the polymerization timemust be extended, causing a long residence timefor the polymers. This is a major disadvantage of theprocess. About nine years ago, DuPont in Canadamodified the patented process, whose residence timewas greatly reduced. Following the patents, the new-ly invented process will
discussed in at the endof this section.
The dibasic acidshaving two carboxyl groups at each end of the straightmethylene chains are all crystalline solids of highmelting point. Table
shows that, as the methylenegroup length increases, the melting point drops, in-dicating association attributable
the methylene group.It is quite interesting that the acids having an evennumber of carbon atoms invariably are higher meltingand less soluble than their neighboring high or lowhomologs having an odd number
carbon atoms.On the other hand, the homologous compoundshaving monocarboxyl group at only one end showmuch lower melting points as indicated in Table
This means a dibasic monomer exhibits a much highermelting point as well as
show the same characteristics that the meltingpoints of even number carbon atoms are higher thantheir neighboring compounds of high odd carbonnumbers.
Diamines, Primary Amines and Their Homo-loguess.
Hexamethylenediamine (HMDA), one of thetwa monomers for making nylon, may be readily pre-pared from adipic acid, which is the other monomerfor nylon
using the adiponitrile process6