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Problems of Human Resource Development

Problems of Human Resource Development



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Published by anyalor3000

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: anyalor3000 on Feb 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The demographic canvas of the North Eastern Region of India (NER) is perhaps the mostcolourful and enchanting in the whole nation. We do not find in any other part of thecountry such a variety – anthropologically, socially, linguistically, culturally,economically, politically and historically diversified stock of mankind. If the biologistsare correct to correlate diversity with survival, sustenance, development and growth, the NER possesses the most potent prospects for the same. The human resources in anyregion have three aspects increasingly more important in the sequel: (1) physical fitness – relating to physical effort, easily captured by the number of workers, their general health(corporal), number of man-hours devoted to work, etc, (2) dexterity – agility, skill,expertise, ability, proficiency – inculcated by training, and (3) attitude, outlook andmindset – imbibed modernization ideals (in the sense of Gunnar Myrdal) and their  practice at a mass level. This third aspect makes ‘soft resources’ or the ‘social capital.’The first two aspects of human resources are generally considered in planning for development. A need to devise suitable and practical programs for preserving andgenerating social capital may not be overemphasized. It is a difficult area often bypassed by the economic planners under the umbrella of non-economic factors. But this neglect isanti-productive. In this paper we have touched upon several aspects of human resourcedevelopment issues and problems. First, the growth of population, very fast in the regiondemands immediate attention. It is not because growth of population by itself isundesirable. But when economic growth of a region does not lend support to growth of  population, resources are spent on maintaining the life than enriching it. Secondly, wehave noted the features of occupational distribution. Proportion of workers in the primaryand the tertiary sectors are overwhelmingly large, while the secondary sector, mostimportant for material prosperity, employs very small proportion of workers. If humanresources are to be better utilized, industrialization of the NER economy is the first prerogative of planning for development. In the same tune, the region produces‘educated’ manpower that suits the swelling tertiary sector at most and is possibly‘unemployable‘ in the secondary sector. Once industrialization takes place, the demandfor skilled manpower will increase. The existing educational institutions will have to starttechnical and professional education programs. Several new educational institutions willhave to be started especially for technical and professional courses suiting to the need of the growing economy. Urbanization in the region is on an increase. But it appears that itis largely due to urban accretion, peopled by the migrant rural inhabitants in search for some remunerative occupation. It is partly because there are no significant openings andopportunities in the rural areas and partly because the urban pull forces attract them fromthe rural areas. The educated youth from the rural areas seldom go back to their places of origin and stick on to the urban centers in search of some opportunities. Suchurbanization overloads the urban infrastructure. It is estimated that about 35% of the total population is below poverty line in the NER. Poverty is related to efficiency of the humanresources and expenditure on removal of poverty is an investment. Industrialization of theregional economy would go far to remove poverty of the people in the region.1
In terms of recruitment and selection it is important to consider carrying out a thorough job analysis to determine the level of skills/technical abilities, competencies, flexibility of the employee required etc. At this point it is important to consider both the internal andexternal factors that can have an effect on the recruitment of employees. The externalfactors are those out-with the powers of the organization and include issues such ascurrent and future trends of the labor market e.g. skills, education level, governmentinvestment into industries etc. On the other hand internal influences are easier to control, predict and monitor, for example management styles or even the organizational culture.In order to know the business environment in which any organization operates, threemajor trends should be considered:Demographics – the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings,insurance packages etc.Diversity – the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now meanthat a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Traditional advocates of "workplacediversity" simply advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation, etc.Skills and qualifications – as industries move from manual to a more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "tight"(i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers will have to compete for employees byoffering financial rewards, community investment, etc.In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labour market the followingshould be understood:Geographical spread – how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel towork should be in line with the pay offered by the organization and the transportation andinfrastructure of the area will also be an influencing factor in deciding who will apply for a post.Occupational structure – the norms and values of the different careers within anorganization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structurenamely craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion through the firm)and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed).Generational difference –different age categories of employees have certaincharacteristics, for example their behavior and their expectations of the organization.While recruitment methods are wide and varied, it is important that the job is describedcorrectly and that any personal specifications are stated. Job recruitment methods can bethrough job centres, employment agencies/consultants, headhunting, and local/nationalnewspapers. It is important that the correct media is chosen to ensure an appropriateresponse to the advertised post.Human Resources Development is a framework for the expansion of human capitalwithin an organization. Human Resources Development is a combination of Training and2

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