Welding Technology and Design
welding, plasma welding are also dealt with. Pressure welding and some specialwelding techniques like electro-slag welding etc. are also discussed in detail. Figure1.1 shows the broad classification of the welding processes.Though the different processes have their own advantages and limitations andare required for special and specific applications, manual metal arc weldingcontinues to enjoy the dominant position in terms of total weld metal deposited.The TIG process produces the finest quality weld on all weldable metals and alloys.The arc temperature may be upto 20,000 K. Although TIG welding produces thehighest quality welds, it is a slow and expensive process. Metal inert gas weldingprocess (MIG) is economical with consumable electrode fed at a predeterminedrate.Plasma arc welding (PAW) has made substantial progress in utilising the highheat energy of an ionised gas stream. The jet temperature can be as high as 50,000K. Foils down to a thickness of 0.01 mm can also be welded in this process andhence this process is more useful in electronic and instrumentation applications.All the processes like TIG, MIG and PAW can be successfully used for eithersemi-automatic or automatic applications. But they are all open arc processes whereradiation and comparatively poor metal recovery put a limit on using high currents.High productivity and good quality welds can be achieved by submerged arcwelding process with weld flux and wire continuously fed. The slag provides theshielding of the weld pool with provision for addition of alloying elements whenevernecessary.Electron beam welding and laser welding are classified under high energy densityprocesses. Figure 1.2 shows the heat intensity (w/sq.cm) and heat consumption(wh/cm) for different welding processes discussed above.For efficient welding the power source should provide controlled arccharacteristic necessary for a particular job. In one case a forceful deeply penetratingarc may be required, while in another case, a soft less panetrating arc may benecessary to avoid ``burn through''. The welding process will also require aparticular type of power source. Table 1.1 gives the power source required forwidely used welding process. The process details are discussed in the following:
Power source for arc welding process
Shield metalvariableAC or DCDCSParc, TIG,voltageDCRPSubmerged arc*ACFlux coredconstantDCDCSPvoltageDCRPGas Metal arcconstantDCDCRPvoltage
*In some applications, the SAW process can use constant voltage DC also.