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Abstract Algebra - Wilkins

Abstract Algebra - Wilkins

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07/05/2012

 
Course 311: Michaelmas Term 1999Part I: Topics in Number Theory
D. R. Wilkins
Contents
1 Topics in Number Theory 2
1.1 Subgroups of the Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Greatest Common Divisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 The Euclidean Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.4 Prime Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.5 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.6 The Innitude of Primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7 Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.8 The Chinese Remainder Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.9 The Euler Totient Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.10 The Theorems of Fermat, Wilson and Euler . . . . . . . . . . 111.11 Solutions of Polynomial Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.12 Primitive Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.13 Quadratic Residues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.14 Quadratic Reciprocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.15 The Jacobi Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
 
1 Topics in Number Theory
1.1 Subgroups of the Integers
A subset
of the set
Z
of integers is a
subgroup
of 
Z
if 0
,
x
and
x
+
y
for all
x
and
y
.It is easy to see that a non-empty subset
of 
Z
is a subgroup of 
Z
if andonly if 
x
y
for all
x
and
y
.Let
m
be an integer, and let
m
Z
=
{
mn
:
n
Z
}
. Then
m
Z
(the set of integer multiples of 
m
) is a subgroup of 
Z
.
Theorem 1.1
Let 
be a subgroup of 
Z
. The
=
m
Z
for some non-negative integer 
m
.
Proof 
If 
=
{
0
}
then
=
m
Z
with
m
= 0. Suppose that
=
{
0
}
. Then
contains a non-zero integer, and therefore
contains a positive integer (since
x
for all
x
). Let
m
be the smallest positive integer belonging to
.A positive integer
n
belonging to
can be written in the form
n
=
qm
+
r
,where
q
is a positive integer and
r
is an integer satisfying 0
r < m
. Then
qm
(because
qm
=
m
+
m
+
···
+
m
). But then
r
, since
r
=
n
qm
.It follows that
r
= 0, since
m
is the smallest positive integer in
. Therefore
n
=
qm
, and thus
n
m
Z
. It follows that
=
m
Z
, as required.
1.2 Greatest Common Divisors
Definition
Let
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
be integers, not all zero. A
common divisor 
of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
is an integer that divides each of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
The
greatest common divisor 
of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
is the greatest positive integer that divideseach of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
. The greatest common divisor of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
is denotedby (
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
).
Theorem 1.2
Let 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
be integers, not all zero. Then there exist integers
u
1
,u
2
,...,u
r
such that 
(
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
) =
u
1
a
1
+
u
2
a
2
+
···
+
u
r
a
r
.
where
(
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
)
is the greatest common divisor of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
.
Proof 
Let
be the set of all integers that are of the form
n
1
a
1
+
n
2
a
2
+
···
+
n
r
a
r
for some
n
1
,n
2
,...,n
r
Z
. Then
is a subgroup of 
Z
. It follows that
=
m
Z
for some non-negative integer
m
(Theorem 1.1). Then
m
is a2
 
common divisor of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
, (since
a
i
for
i
= 1
,
2
,...,r
). Moreoverany common divisor of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
is a divisor of each element of 
and istherefore a divisor of 
m
. It follows that
m
is the greatest common divisorof 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
. But
m
, and therefore there exist integers
u
1
,u
2
,...,u
r
such that(
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
) =
u
1
a
1
+
u
2
a
2
+
···
+
u
r
a
r
,
as required.
Definition
Let
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
be integers, not all zero. If the greatest com-mon divisor of 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
is 1 then these integers are said to be
coprime
.If integers
a
and
b
are coprime then
a
is said to be coprime to
b
. (Thus
a
iscoprime to
b
if and only if 
b
is coprime to
a
.)
Corollary 1.3
Let 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
be integers, not all zero, Then 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
are coprime if and only if there exist integers
u
1
,u
2
,...,u
r
such that 
1 =
u
1
a
1
+
u
2
a
2
+
···
+
u
r
a
r
.
Proof 
If 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
are coprime then the existence of the required integers
u
1
,u
2
,...,u
r
follows from Theorem 1.2. On the other hand if there existintegers
u
1
,u
2
,...,u
r
with the required property then any common divisorof 
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
must be a divisor of 1, and therefore
a
1
,a
2
,...,a
r
must becoprime.
1.3 The Euclidean Algorithm
Let
a
and
b
be positive integers with
a > b
. Let
r
0
=
a
and
r
1
=
b
. If 
b
does not divide
a
then let
r
2
be the remainder on dividing
a
by
b
. Then
a
=
q
1
b
+
r
2
, where
q
1
and
r
2
are positive integers and 0
< r
2
< b
. If 
r
2
does not divide
b
then let
r
3
be the remainder on dividing
b
by
r
2
. Then
b
=
q
2
r
2
+
r
3
, where
q
2
and
r
3
are positive integers and 0
< r
3
< r
2
. If 
r
3
does not divide
r
2
then let
r
4
be the remainder on dividing
r
2
by
r
3
.Then
r
2
=
q
3
r
3
+
r
4
, where
q
3
and
r
4
are positive integers and 0
< r
4
< r
3
.Continuing in this fashion, we construct positive integers
r
0
,r
1
,...,r
n
suchthat
r
0
=
a
,
r
1
=
b
and
r
i
is the remainder on dividing
r
i
2
by
r
i
1
for
i
= 2
,
3
,...,n
. Then
r
i
2
=
q
i
1
r
i
1
+
r
i
, where
q
i
1
and
r
i
are positiveintegers and 0
< r
i
< r
i
1
. The algorithm for constructing the positiveintegers
r
0
,r
1
,...,r
n
terminates when
r
n
divides
r
n
1
. Then
r
n
1
=
q
n
r
n
forsome positive integer
q
n
. (The algorithm must clearly terminate in a finitenumber of steps, since
r
0
> r
1
> r
2
>
···
> r
n
.) We claim that
r
n
is thegreatest common divisor of 
a
and
b
.3

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