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Ecological Perspectives

Ecological Perspectives

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Published by cbacademics
Work on the Braudel's idea of ecological perspectives
Work on the Braudel's idea of ecological perspectives

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Published by: cbacademics on Feb 05, 2013
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Braudel's Ecological PerspectiveAuthor(s): James R. HudsonSource:
Sociological Forum,
Vol. 2, No. 1 (Winter, 1987), pp. 146-165Published by: SpringerStable URL:
Accessed: 26/05/2010 21:45
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SociologicalForumociologicalForum
LeonardSyme(eds.),SocialSupportand Health:83-108.New York:Ac-ademicPress.House,JamesS.,CynthiaRobbins,andHelenL. Metzner1982"Theassociationof social relation-shipsand activities withmortality:Prospectiveevidence fromthe Te-cumsehCommunityHealthStudy."AmericanJournalofEpidemiology116(1):123-140.Israel,BarbaraA. andKathleenA.Roundsforthcoming"Socialnetworksand socialsupport:Asynthesisforhealthed-ucators." AdvancesinHealth Edu-cation and Promotion.Kanter,Rosabeth Moss1977Work andFamilyn the United States:ACritical ReviewandAgendaforResearch andPolicy.NewYork:RussellSageFoundation.Kessler,Ronald C. andJaneD.McLeod1984"Sex differencesinvulnerabilitytoundesirablelife events." AmericanSociologicalReview49:620-631.1985"Socialsupportand mentalhealthincommunity surveys."InSheldonCohen andS.LeonardSyme(eds.),SocialSupportand Health:219-240.New York: AcademicPress.Moody, PhilipM.and RobertM.Gray1972"Socialclass,socialintegration,andthe use ofpreventivehealth ser-vices."In E.GartlyJaco (ed.),Pa-tients,PhysiciansandIllness:250-261. New York: FreePress.LeonardSyme(eds.),SocialSupportand Health:83-108.New York:Ac-ademicPress.House,JamesS.,CynthiaRobbins,andHelenL. Metzner1982"Theassociationof social relation-shipsand activities withmortality:Prospectiveevidence fromthe Te-cumsehCommunityHealthStudy."AmericanJournalofEpidemiology116(1):123-140.Israel,BarbaraA. andKathleenA.Roundsforthcoming"Socialnetworksand socialsupport:Asynthesisforhealthed-ucators." AdvancesinHealth Edu-cation and Promotion.Kanter,Rosabeth Moss1977Work andFamilyn the United States:ACritical ReviewandAgendaforResearch andPolicy.NewYork:RussellSageFoundation.Kessler,Ronald C. andJaneD.McLeod1984"Sex differencesinvulnerabilitytoundesirablelife events." AmericanSociologicalReview49:620-631.1985"Socialsupportand mentalhealthincommunity surveys."InSheldonCohen andS.LeonardSyme(eds.),SocialSupportand Health:219-240.New York: AcademicPress.Moody, PhilipM.and RobertM.Gray1972"Socialclass,socialintegration,andthe use ofpreventivehealth ser-vices."In E.GartlyJaco (ed.),Pa-tients,PhysiciansandIllness:250-261. New York: FreePress.Pilisuk,M. andM.Minkler1985"Supportiveties: Apoliticalecon-omy perspective."HealthEducationQuarterly12(1):93-106.Schoenbach,VictorJ.,BertonH.Kaplan,LisaFredman,and David G.Kleinbaum1986"Social tiesandmortalityin EvansCounty,Georgia."AmericanJournalofEpidemiology123(4):577-591.Veroff,Joseph,ElizabethDouvan,andRichard A. Kulka1981The Inner American: A Self-Portraitfrom1957to1976.New York: Ba-sic Books.Veroff,Joseph,Richard A.Kulka,andElizabeth Douvan1981Mental Health in America: PatternsofHelp-Seekingfrom1957to1976.NewYork:Basic Books.Wethington,Elaine and Ronald C.Kessler1986"Perceivedsupport,receivedsup-port,andadjustmentto stressful lifeevents."Journalof Health and So-cialBehavior27:78-89.Wheeler, Ladd,HarryT.Reis,andJohnNezlek1983"Loneliness,socialinteraction,andsex roles."JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology45:943-953.Wortman,Camille andDarrinLehman1985"Reactions to victims of life crises:Support attemptsthat fail."InI.G.SarasonandB.R. Sarason(eds.),So-cialSupport:Theory,Research andApplications:463-489.Dordrecht,Netherlands: MartinusNijhoff.Pilisuk,M. andM.Minkler1985"Supportiveties: Apoliticalecon-omy perspective."HealthEducationQuarterly12(1):93-106.Schoenbach,VictorJ.,BertonH.Kaplan,LisaFredman,and David G.Kleinbaum1986"Social tiesandmortalityin EvansCounty,Georgia."AmericanJournalofEpidemiology123(4):577-591.Veroff,Joseph,ElizabethDouvan,andRichard A. Kulka1981The Inner American: A Self-Portraitfrom1957to1976.New York: Ba-sic Books.Veroff,Joseph,Richard A.Kulka,andElizabeth Douvan1981Mental Health in America: PatternsofHelp-Seekingfrom1957to1976.NewYork:Basic Books.Wethington,Elaine and Ronald C.Kessler1986"Perceivedsupport,receivedsup-port,andadjustmentto stressful lifeevents."Journalof Health and So-cialBehavior27:78-89.Wheeler, Ladd,HarryT.Reis,andJohnNezlek1983"Loneliness,socialinteraction,andsex roles."JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology45:943-953.Wortman,Camille andDarrinLehman1985"Reactions to victims of life crises:Support attemptsthat fail."InI.G.SarasonandB.R. Sarason(eds.),So-cialSupport:Theory,Research andApplications:463-489.Dordrecht,Netherlands: MartinusNijhoff.
Braudel'sEcological Perspective
JamesR. HudsonPennsylvaniaStateUniversityatHarrisburg
FernandBraudel,aleading figureintheAnnalesschool ofFrenchhistoriography, employed principlesandpracticesfromseveralso-cialsciencedisciplinesin hishistoricalstudies.Significantamong
146
Braudel'sEcological Perspective
JamesR. HudsonPennsylvaniaStateUniversityatHarrisburg
FernandBraudel,aleading figureintheAnnalesschool ofFrenchhistoriography, employed principlesandpracticesfromseveralso-cialsciencedisciplinesin hishistoricalstudies.Significantamong
146
 
NotesandInsightsthese wassociology.Althoughhedidnotformally recognizethatamajorelementin hissociologicalperspectivewas humanecol-ogy,ananalysisof his workreveals howextensivelyheemployedanecologicalparadigm.His successinusingthisparadigmdem-onstratestheutilityoftheprinciplesof humanecologyinhistor-ical andcomparativestudiesandsuggestsstronglythat freshin-sightsintocontemporarysocialsystemscan begainedby combiningBraudel's "totalhistory"andecology's"holistic"approaches.*FernandBraudelwasaFrenchhistorianofimpressivestature."If theNobelPrize weregiventohistorians,"Kinser haswritten,"it wouldcer-tainlyhavebeenawarded toFernandBraudel"(1981:63).Braudel'srep-utation is basedupona massiveset oforiginalscholarlyworksanduponhismajorcontributiontoraisingthe Annales'historiographytoits cur-rentpositionofeminenceand intellectualfertility,notonlyinFrance,butthroughoutthe worldcommunityofhistorians(Hexter,1972;Sto-ianovich,1976).WhileBraudeldidnotoriginatethe Annalesapproachtohistory,heisprimarilyresponsiblefor its rise tointernational rec-ognitionthroughhisexemplificationof its methodsin hismajorworks,hiseditorshipofitsleadingjournal(Annales:Economies,Societes,Civ-ilisations),and hispresidencyof theSixiemeSectionofthe EcolePra-tiquedes HautesEtudes.Sociologistsareperhapsmostfamiliar withBraudel'scontributionsthroughthe work of ImmanuelWallerstein onworldsystems theory(1974,1980,1982).One of thedistinguishingmarks of theAnnalesapproachisitsincorporationof other social sciencedisciplinesinto itshistoriography.Braudel,perhapsevenmoreself-consciouslythanearlyAnnales histo-rians,borrows fromeconomics,geography, demography,andsociology;and while there are morethanjusttraces of thesociologyofDurkheimandGurvitchinBraudel,oneof the mostconsistentsociologicalele-
*I would like tothankSeanFlaherty,Amos H.Hawley,HerbertM.Hunter,LouiseHoffman,and Charles Stivale for their useful comments and substantivesuggestionsontheargumentpresentedin thispaper.The twoanonymousrefereessuggestedimportantrevisions thatstrengthenedthepaper.Monroe Wasch wasinstrumentalinbringingBraudeltomyat-tention andsuggestinghisimportancetosociologists.Anyliterarymerit thepapermayhave is the result of the editorial assistance of Robert B.Wolf. LouisaMorganwillinglytypedalargenumberofdrafts andthe finalversion.Anearlier version ofthispaperwaspresentedat the annualmeetingsof theAmericanSociologicalAssociation,August1986,under the title "TheEcological Perspectiveof Fer-nand Braudel."'TheEcolePractiquedes HautesEtudeswasfoundedin1868with foursections,"oneeach formathematics,physicsandchemistry,naturalhistoryandphysiology,andhistoricalandphilogicalstudies"(Clark,1973:43).The fifthsection,religioussciences,wasaddedin1886,and thesixth,economics and socialsciences,in1947(forgreaterdetail,seeClark,1973:42-51).
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