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Published by: Silviu on Feb 16, 2009
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11/15/2013

Universitatea \u201dPolitehnica\u201d Bucure\u00b8sti
Facultatea de Automatic\u02d8a \u00b8si Calculatoare
PRELUCRAREA
SEMNALELOR:
breviar teoretic, probleme rezolvate, ghid Matlab
prof.dr.ing. Bogdan Dumitrescu
versiunea 6.1, iunie 2006
Prefat
\u00b8 \u02d8a
Lucrarea de fat
\u00b8\u02d8a este destinat\u02d8a student
\u00b8ilor de anul IV ai Facult\u02d8at
\u00b8ii de Au-
tomatic\u02d8a \u00b8si Calculatoare, sect
\u00b8ia Automatic\u02d8a, care urmeaz\u02d8a cursul de Prelucrarea
Semnalelor. Dup\u02d8a cum sugereaz\u02d8a titlul, lucrarea urm\u02d8are\u00b8ste mai multe scopuri.
\u02c6In primul r\u02c6and, ea constituie un suport teoretic condensat al informat
\u00b8iilor pre-
date la curs; lipsesc deci explicat
\u00b8iile detaliate; lucrarea are mai degrab\u02d8a un rol de
\ufb01xare a cuno\u00b8stint
\u00b8elor teoretice dec\u02c6at unul de init
\u00b8iere.
Al doilea scop major este obi\u00b8snuirea studentului cu rezolvarea de probleme. De
aceea, \ufb01ecare sect
\u00b8iune cont

\u00b8ine at\u02c6at probleme rezolvate, c\u02c6at \u00b8si probleme propuse cititorului. Problemele propuse au \u02c6\u0131n general un nivel mediu de di\ufb01cultate, sau chiar u\u00b8sor. Lipsesc, sau sunt foarte rare, problemele grele.

\u02c6In \ufb01ne, lucrarea cont
\u00b8ine \u00b8si informat
\u00b8ii despre funct
\u00b8iile Matlab, \u02c6\u0131n special din Sig-
nal Processing Toolbox, utile\u02c6\u0131n contextul chestiunilor teoretice studiate. Informat
\u00b8iile
sunt sumare, iar cititorul este invitat s\u02d8a le completeze utiliz\u02c6and programul Matlab.
Fiecare sect
\u00b8iune este organizat\u02d8a \u02c6\u0131n ordinea: teorie, probleme rezolvate, probleme
propuse, ghid Matlab; aceast\u02d8a din urm\u02d8a parte poate lipsi, dac\u02d8a sect
\u00b8iunea respectiv\u02d8a
nu are implicat
\u00b8ii calculatorii.
Lucrarea este \u02c6\u0131nc\u02d8a incomplet\u02d8a. Prima versiunea a ei, din decembrie 2002,
cont
\u00b8inea doar cinci capitole din cele cel put

\u00b8in \u00b8sapte proiectate (num\u02d8arul de versiune de pe copert\u02d8a are dou\u02d8a cifre: prima este num\u02d8arul de capitole, a doua reprezint\u02d8a \u201dedit

\u00b8ia\u201d curent\u02d8a).\u02c6Intre timp, al \u00b8saselea capitol a fost scris, \u02c6\u0131mpreun\u02d8a cu numeroase
corecturi \u00b8si ad\u02d8augiri. Sugestiile \u00b8si corecturile cititorilor sunt binevenite.
Versiuni
5.0: init
\u00b8ial\u02d8a.
5.1: nou: semnale aleatoare; corecturi: cap. 1, 2, 4.
5.2: corecturi \u00b8si ad\u02d8augiri: sect
\u00b8. 4.5.
5.3: nou: sect
\u00b8. 3.3; corecturi: cap. 5.
6.0: cap. 6, sect
\u00b8. 2.6; corecturi: cap. 1-5.
6.1: corecturi: cap. 1-5 (datorate student

\u00b8ilor din 2006: Alexandra T\u02c6arziu, Adela Defta, Maria Com\u02d8anescu, Diana Diaconescu, Vlad Amarandei, Alex Dumitrache, Daniel Brumu\u00b8sescu, Raluca Oroz \u00b8si alt

\u00b8ii).
Cuprins
1 Semnale
3
1.1 Semnalediscrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 1.2 TransformataFourier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3 TransformataZ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4 Semnalealeatoare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2 Sisteme
31
2.1 De\ufb01nit
\u00b8ii \u00b8si propriet\u02d8at

\u00b8i de baz\u02d8a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.2 Sisteme liniare invariante \u02c6\u0131n timp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.3 Reprezentarea\u02c6\u0131nfrecvent

\u00b8\u02d8a a sistemelor LIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.4 Filtre de faz\u02d8a minim\u02d8a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.5 Filtre cu faz\u02d8a liniar\u02d8a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.6 Implementarea\ufb01ltrelor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

3 E\u00b8santionare
69

3.1 E\u00b8santionare (conversie analogic-numeric). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.2 Conversienumeric-analogic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.3 Schimbareafrecvent

\u00b8ei de e\u00b8santionare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.3.1 Decimare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.3.2 Interpolare(discret\u02d8a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.3.3 Schimbareafrecvent

\u00b8ei de e\u00b8santionare cu un factor rat
\u00b8ional . . 87
4 Proiectarea \ufb01ltrelor
91
4.1 Speci\ufb01careaperformant

\u00b8elor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.2 Proiectarea \ufb01ltrelor FIR prin metoda ferestrei. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3 Proiectarea \ufb01ltrelor FIR \u02c6\u0131n sens CMMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.4 Proiectarea \ufb01ltrelor FIR \u02c6\u0131n sens Chebyshev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.5 Proiectarea \ufb01ltrelor IIR: metode de

transformare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 4.5.1 Filtreanalogice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4.5.2 Transformareabiliniar\u02d8a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4.5.3 Transform\u02d8aridiscret-discret\u02c6\u0131nfrecvent

\u00b8\u02d8a. . . . . . . . . . . . 125
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