Circuit Idea/Op-amp Inverting Current-to-Voltage Converter2
The internal resistor affects the current
Fig. 2. The internal resistor affects the current in the passivecurrent-to-voltage converter.
We have already known whythe simple current-to-voltageconverter
(Fig. 2) is animperfect circuit - because theoutput voltage drop V
acrossthe resistor R affects the inputcurrent (here we suppose thatthe input current is created bya real source consisting of a voltage source V
and aninternal resistance Ri).We can look at the voltage V
from two contrary viewpoints.From the point of view of theinput voltage source, the voltage drop V
istroublesome; so, the input source "would like" this voltage not to exist. Contrary, from thepoint of view of the load, V
is a useful voltage drop as it serves as an output quantity; so,the load "would like" this voltage to exist and even it to be as much as possible high.Obviously, there is a contradiction here - the voltage drop V
has to exist and, at the sametime, not to exist. How do we solve this contradiction? You can explore the operation of the passive circuit in a more attractive way, if you click
button in the interactive flash movie
or if you go to
in theinteractive flash builder
Removing a disturbance by an"antidisturbance"
stands in our way. The classical remedy is to
remove the cause of thedisturbance
. Only, it is not always possible to do that; then, we useanother exotic solution -we
remove the disturbance by an equivalent "antidisturbance"
. For this purpose, we use anadditional power source (energy), which "helps" us (the main source) by compensating onlythe local losses caused by the
troublesome quantity (conversely, in the oppositeactive voltage-to-current converter, the additional power source compensates the lossescaused by the
quantity). This technique is associated with continuous wasting of additional energy but the result is zero (virtual ground
); so, we prefer to use it whenwe are rich and, at the same time, lazy enough:). An example: if we have broken ourwindow in winter, we turn on a heater that compensates the thermal losses; and v.v., insummer, we turn on an air-conditioner. More examples: if our car has come into collisionwith other car, the insurance company compensates the damages that we have caused tothe else's car, if we cause troubles to others, we apologize, if we have spent money from ouraccount, we begin depositing additional money into the account, etc. (see virtual groundpage
for more examples). In all these cases,