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Table Of Contents Natural Frequency Equivalence
2.2 Analogies
2.2.1 Mechanical Elements Mass (Inertia) Element Spring (Stiffness) Element
2.2.2 Electrical Elements Capacitor Element Inductor Element
2.2.3 Thermal Elements Thermal Capacitor Thermal Resistance
2.2.4 Fluid Elements Fluid Capacitor Fluid Inertor Fluid Resistance
2.2.5 Natural Oscillations
2.3 State-Space Representation
2.3.1 State Space State Equations
2.3.2 State Models
2.3.3 Input-Output Models Time-Invariant Systems Principle of Superposition
2.4 Model Linearization
2.4.1 Nonlinear State-Space Models
2.4.2 Linearization
2.4.3 Illustrative Examples
2.5 Linear Graphs
2.5.1 Through Variables and Across Variables
2.5.2 Sign Convention
2.5.3 Single-Port Elements Use of Linear Graphs Force and Velocity Sources
2.5.4 Two-Port Elements Mechanical Transformer Gyrator
2.5.5 Loop and Node Equations Number of Loops Compatibility (Loop) Equations Node (Continuity) Equations Series and Parallel Connections
2.6 State Models From Linear Graphs
2.6.1 Sign Convention
2.6.2 Steps in Obtaining a State Model
2.7 Electrical Systems
2.7.1 Capacitor
2.7.2 Inductor
2.7.3 Resistor
2.7.4 Transformer
2.7.5 Source Elements
2.7.6 Circuit Equations
2.7.7 Operational Amplifier
2.7.8 DC Motor
2.8 Fluid Systems
2.8.1 Fluid Capacitor or Accumulator (A-type element)
2.8.2 Fluid Inertor (T-type element)
2.8.3 Fluid Resistor (D-type element)
2.8.4 Fluid Source Element
2.8.5 System Equations
2.8.6 Derivation of Constitutive Equations Fluid Capacitor Fluid Inertor Fluid Resistor
2.9 Thermal Systems
2.9.1 Constitutive Equations
2.9.2 Thermal Capacitance
2.9.3 Thermal Resistance Conduction Convection Radiation
2.9.4 Three-Dimensional Conduction
2.9.5 Biot Number
2.9.6 Model Equations
2.10 Bond Graphs
2.10.1 Single-Port Elements
2.10.2 Source Elements
2.10.3 Energy Storage and Dissipation Elements
2.10.4 Derivative Causality and Integral Causality Causality Conflicts and System Order
2.10.5 Two-Port Elements
2.10.6 Multiport Junction Elements Common-Force Junction Common-Velocity Junction
2.10.7 State-Models From Bond Graphs
2.11.3 Causality and Physical Realizability
2.12 Frequency Domain Models
2.12.1 Frequency Response Function
2.12.2 Significance of Frequency Transfer Function
2.12.3 Mechanical Impedance and Mobility
2.12.4 Transmissibility Function Force Transmissibility Motion Transmissibility
2.12.5 Case of Single Degree of Freedom
2.12.6 Case of Two Degrees of Freedom
2.13 Response Analysis and Simulation
2.13.1 Analytical Solution Homogeneous Solution Particular Solution Impulse Response Function Convolution Integral
2.13.2 Stability
2.13.3 First Order Systems
2.13.4 Model Identification Example
2.13.5 Second Order Systems Free Response of an Undamped Oscillator Free Response of a Damped Oscillator Forced Response of a Damped Oscillator Response to Harmonic Excitation
2.13.6 Response Using Laplace Transform Step Response Using Laplace Transforms
2.13.7 Computer Simulation
2.14 Problems
Mechanical Components and Robotic Manipulators
3.1 Mechanical Components
3.2 Transmission Components
3.2.1 Lead Screw and Nut
3.2.2 Harmonic Drives
3.2.3 Continuously-Variable Transmission Principle of Operation Two-Slider CVT Three-Slider CVT
3.3 Robotic Manipulators
3.3.1 Robot Classification
3.3.2 Robot Kinematics Homogeneous Transformation Denavit-Hartenberg Notation
The Denavit-Hartenberg notation Inverse Kinematics Differential Kinematics
3.3.3 Robot Dynamics Lagrangian Approach Newton-Euler Formulation
3.3.4 Space-Station Robotics
3.3.5 Robot Control Architecture
3.3.6 Friction and Backlash
3.3.7 Robotic Sensors
3.4 Robotic Grippers
3.4.1 Gripper Features
3.4.2 Analytical Model Contact with the Lower Link Object Initial Velocities
3.4.3 Contact with the Upper Link
3.5 Problems
Component Interconnection and Signal Conditioning
4.1 Component Interconnection
4.2 Impedance Characteristics
4.2.1 Cascade Connection of Devices
4.2.2 Impedance Matching
4.2.3 Impedance Matching in Mechanical Systems
4.3 Amplifiers
4.3.1 Operational Amplifier Use of Feedback in Op-Amps
4.3.2 Voltage, Current, and Power Amplifiers
4.3.3 Instrumentation Amplifiers Differential Amplifier Common Mode
4.3.4 Amplifier Performance Ratings Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) AC-Coupled Amplifiers
4.3.5 Ground Loop Noise
4.4 Analog Filters
4.4.1 Passive Filters and Active Filters Number of Poles
4.4.2 Low-Pass Filters Low-Pass Butterworth Filter
4.4.3 High-Pass Filters
4.4.4 Band-Pass Filters Resonance-Type Band-Pass Filters
4.4.5 Band-Reject Filters
4.5 Modulators and Demodulators
4.5.1 Amplitude Modulation Modulation Theorem Side Frequencies and Side Bands
4.5.2 Application of Amplitude Modulation Fault Detection and Diagnosis
4.5.3 Demodulation
4.6 Analog-Digital Conversion
4.6.1 Digital to Analog Conversion Weighted Resistor DAC Ladder DAC DAC Error Sources
4.6.2 Analog to Digital Conversion Successive Approximation ADC Dual Slope ADC Counter ADC ADC Performance Characteristics
4.7 Sample-and-Hold (S/H) Circuitry
4.8 Multiplexers (MUX)
4.8.1 Analog Multiplexers
4.8.2 Digital Multiplexers
4.9 Digital Filters
4.9.1 Software Implementation and Hardware Implementation
4.10 Bridge Circuits
4.10.1 Wheatstone Bridge
4.10.2 Constant-Current Bridge
4.10.3 Hardware Linearization of Bridge Outputs
4.10.4 Bridge Amplifiers
4.10.5 Half-Bridge Circuits
4.10.6 Impedance Bridges Owen Bridge Wien-Bridge Oscillator
4.11.1 Linearization by Software
4.11.2 Linearization by Hardware Logic
4.11.3 Analog Linearizing Circuitry
4.11.4 Offsetting Circuitry
4.11.5 Proportional-Output Circuitry
4.11.6 Curve Shaping Circuitry
4.12 Miscellaneous Signal Modification Circuitry
4.12.1 Phase Shifters
4.12.2 Voltage-to-Frequency Converters (VFC)
4.12.3 Frequency-to-Voltage Converter (FVC)
4.12.4 Voltage-to-Current Converter (VCC)
4.12.5 Peak-Hold Circuits
4.13 Signal Analyzers and Display Devices
4.13.1 Signal Analyzers
4.13.2 Oscilloscopes Triggering Lissajous Patterns Digital Oscilloscopes
4.14 Problems
Performance Specification and Analysis
5.1 Parameters for Performance Specification
5.1.1 Perfect Measurement Device
5.2 Time Domain Specifications
5.2.1 Rise Time Tr
5.2.2 Delay Time Td
5.2.3 Peak Time Tp
5.2.4 Settling Time Ts
5.2.5 Percentage Overshoot (P.O.)
5.2.6 Steady-State Error
5.2.7 Simple Oscillator Model
5.2.8 Stability and Speed of Response
5.3 Frequency Domain Specifications
5.3.1 Gain Margin and Phase Margin
5.3.2 Simple Oscillator Model
5.4 Linearity
5.4.1 Saturation
5.4.2 Dead Zone
5.4.3 Hysteresis
5.4.4 The Jump Phenomenon
5.4.5 Limit Cycles
5.4.6 Frequency Creation
5.5 Instrument Ratings
5.5.1 Rating Parameters
5.6 Bandwidth Design
5.6.1 Bandwidth Transmission Level of a Band-Pass Filter Effective Noise Bandwidth Half-Power (or 3 dB) Bandwidth Fourier Analysis Bandwidth Useful Frequency Range Instrument Bandwidth Control Bandwidth
5.6.2 Static Gain
5.7 Aliasing Distortion Due to Signal Sampling
5.7.1 Sampling Theorem
5.7.2 Anti-Aliasing Filter
5.7.3 Another Illustration of Aliasing
5.8 Bandwidth Design of a Mechatronic System
5.8.1 Comment About Control Cycle Time
5.9 Instrument Error Analysis
5.9.1 Statistical Representation
5.9.2 Accuracy and Precision
5.9.3 Error Combination Absolute Error SRSS Error
5.10 Statistical Process Control
5.10.1 Control Limits or Action Lines
5.10.2 Steps of SPC
5.11 Problems
Analog Sensors and Transducers
6.1 Terminology
6.1.1 Motion Transducers
6.2 Potentiometer
6.2.1 Rotary Potentiometers Loading Nonlinearity
6.2.2 Performance Considerations
6.2.3 Optical Potentiometer
6.3 Variable-Inductance Transducers
6.3.1 Mutual-lnduction Transducers
6.3.2 Linear-Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) Phase Shift and Null Voltage Signal Conditioning
6.3.3 Rotatory-Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT)
6.3.4 Mutual-lnduction Proximity Sensor
6.3.5 Resolver Demodulation Resolver with Rotor Output
6.3.6 Synchro Transformer
6.4 Permanent-Magnet Transducers
6.4.1 DC Tachometer Electronic Commutation Modeling and Design Example Loading Considerations
6.4.2 Permanent-Magnet AC Tachometer
6.4.3 AC Induction Tachometer
6.4.4 Eddy Current Transducers
6.5 Variable-Capacitance Transducers
6.5.1 Capacitive Rotation Sensor
6.5.2 Capacitive Displacement Sensor
6.5.3 Capacitive Angular Velocity Sensor
6.5.4 Capacitance Bridge Circuit
6.5.5 Differential (Push-Pull) Displacement Sensor
6.6 Piezoelectric Sensors
6.6.1 Sensitivity
6.6.2 Types of Accelerometers
6.6.3 Piezoelectric Accelerometer
6.6.4 Charge Amplifier
6.7 Effort Sensors
6.7.1 Force Causality Issues Force-Motion Causality Physical Realizability
6.7.2 Force Control Problems Force Feedback Control Feedforward Force Control
6.7.3 Impedance Control
6.7.4 Force Sensor Location
6.8 Strain Gages
6.8.1 Equations for Strain Gage Measurements Bridge Sensitivity The Bridge Constant The Calibration Constant Data Acquisition Accuracy Considerations
6.8.2 Semiconductor Strain Gages
6.8.3 Automatic (Self) Compensation for Temperature
6.9 Torque Sensors
6.9.1 Strain Gage Torque Sensors
6.9.2 Design Considerations Strain Capacity of the Gage Strain Gage Nonlinearity Limit Sensitivity Requirement Stiffness Requirement
6.9.3 Deflection Torque Sensors Direct-Deflection Torque Sensor Variable Reluctance Torque Sensor
6.9.4 Reaction Torque Sensors
6.9.5 Motor Current Torque Sensors
6.9.6 Force Sensors
6.10 Tactile Sensing
6.10.1 Tactile Sensor Requirements
6.10.2 Construction and Operation of Tactile Sensors
6.10.3 Optical Tactile Sensors
6.10.4 Piezoresistive Tactile Sensors
6.10.5 Dexterity
6.10.6 Strain Gage Tactile Sensor
6.10.7 Other Types of Tactile Sensors
6.10.8 Passive Compliance
6.11 Gyroscopic Sensors
6.11.1 Rate Gyro
6.11.2 Coriolis Force Devices
6.12 Optical Sensors and Lasers
6.12.1 Fiber-Optic Position Sensor
6.12.2 Laser Interferometer
6.12.3 Fiber-Optic Gyroscope
6.12.4 Laser Doppler Interferometer
6.13 Ultrasonic Sensors
6.13.1 Magnetostrictive Displacement Sensors
6.14 Thermo-Fluid Sensors
6.14.1 Pressure Sensors
6.14.2 Flow Sensors
6.14.3 Temperature Sensors Thermocouple Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Thermistor Bi-Metal Strip Thermometer
6.15 Other Types of Sensors
6.16 Problems
Digital Transducers
7.1 Advantages of Digital Transducers
7.2 Shaft Encoders
7.2.1 Encoder Types
7.3 Incremental Optical Encoders
7.3.1 Direction of Rotation
7.3.2 Hardware Features
7.3.3 Displacement Measurement Digital Resolution Physical Resolution Step-up Gearing Interpolation
7.3.4 Velocity Measurement Velocity Resolution Step-Up Gearing
7.3.5 Data Acquisition Hardware
7.4 Absolute Optical Encoders
7.4.1 Gray Coding Code Conversion Logic
7.4.2 Resolution
7.4.3 Velocity Measurement
7.4.4 Advantages and Drawbacks
7.5 Encoder Error
7.5.1 Eccentricity Error
7.6 Miscellaneous Digital Transducers
7.6.1 Digital Resolvers
7.6.2 Digital Tachometers
7.6.3 Hall Effect Sensors
7.6.4 Linear Encoders
7.6.5 Moiré Fringe Displacement Sensors
7.6.6 Cable Extension Sensors
7.6.7 Binary Transducers
7.7 Problems
Stepper Motors
8.1 Principle of Operation
8.1.1 Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor
8.1.2 Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor
8.1.3 Polarity Reversal
8.2 Stepper Motor Classification
8.2.1 Single-Stack Stepper Motors
8.2.2 Toothed-Pole Construction
8.2.3 Another Toothed Construction
8.2.4 Microstepping
8.2.5 Multiple-Stack Stepper Motors Equal-Pitch Multiple-Stack Stepper Unequal-Pitch Multiple-Stack Stepper
8.2.6 Hybrid Stepper Motor
8.3 Driver and Controller
8.3.1 Driver Hardware
8.3.2 Motor Time Constant
8.4 Torque Motion Characteristics
8.4.1 Static Position Error
8.5 Damping of Stepper Motors
8.5.1 Mechanical Damping
8.5.2 Electronic Damping
8.5.3 Multiple Phase Energization
8.6 Stepping Motor Models
8.6.1 A Simplified Model
8.6.2 An Improved Model Torque Equation for PM Motors Torque Equation for VR Motors
8.7 Control of Stepper Motors
8.7.1 Pulse Missing
8.7.2 Feedback Control
8.7.3 Torque Control Through Switching
8.7.4 Model-Based Feedback Control
8.8 Stepper Motor Selection and Applications
8.8.1 Torque Characteristics and Terminology
8.8.2 Stepper Motor Selection Positioning (X-Y) Tables
8.8.3 Stepper Motor Applications
8.9 Problems
Continuous-Drive Actuators
9.1 DC Motors
9.1.1 Rotor and Stator
9.1.2 Commutation
9.1.3 Static Torque Characteristics
9.1.4 Brushless DC Motors Constant Speed Operation Transient Operation
9.1.5 Torque Motors
9.2 DC Motor Equations
9.2.1 Steady-State Characteristics Bearing Friction Output Power Combined Excitation of Motor Windings Speed Regulation
9.2.2 Experimental Model Electrical Damping Constant Linearized Experimental Model
9.3 Control of DC Motors
9.3.1 DC Servomotors
9.3.2 Armature Control Motor Time Constants Motor Parameter Measurement
9.3.3 Field Control
9.3.4 Feedback Control of DC Motors Velocity Feedback Control Position Plus Velocity Feedback Control Position Feedback with PID Control
9.3.5 Phase-Locked Control
9.4 Motor Driver
9.4.1 Interface Board
9.4.2 Drive Unit
9.4.3 Pulse Width Modulation
9.5 DC Motor Selection
9.5.1 Motor Data and Specifications
9.5.2 Selection Considerations
9.5.3 Motor Sizing Procedure Inertia Matching Drive Amplifier Selection
9.6 Induction Motors
9.6.1 Rotating Magnetic Field
9.6.2 Induction Motor Characteristics
9.6.3 Torque-Speed Relationship
9.7 Induction Motor Control
9.7.1 Excitation Frequency Control
9.7.2 Voltage Control
9.7.3 Rotor Resistance Control
9.7.4 Pole-Changing Control
9.7.5 Field Feedback Control (Flux Vector Drive)
9.7.6 A Transfer-Function Model for an Induction Motor
9.7.7 Single-Phase AC Motors
9.8 Synchronous Motors
9.8.1 Control of a Synchronous Motor
9.9 Linear Actuators
9.9.1 Solenoid
9.9.2 Linear Motors
9.10 Hydraulic Actuators
9.10.1 Components of a Hydraulic Control System
9.10.2 Hydraulic Pumps and Motors
9.10.3 Hydraulic Valves Spool Valve Steady-State Valve Characteristics
9.10.4 Hydraulic Primary Actuators
9.10.5 The Load Equation
9.11 Hydraulic Control Systems
9.11.1 Feedback Control
9.11.2 Constant-Flow Systems
9.11.3 Pump-Controlled Hydraulic Actuators
9.11.4 Hydraulic Accumulators
9.11.5 Pneumatic Control Systems
9.11.6 Flapper Valves
9.11.7 Hydraulic Circuits
9.12 Fluidics
9.12.1 Fluidic Components Logic Components Fluidic Motion Sensors Fluidic Amplifiers
9.12.2 Fluidic Control Systems Interfacing Considerations Modular Laminated Construction
9.12.3 Applications of Fluidics
9.13 Problems
Digital Logic and Hardware
10.1 Number Systems and Codes
10.1.1 Binary Representation
10.1.2 Negative Numbers Signed Magnitude Representation Two’s Complement Representation One’s Complement
10.1.3 Binary Multiplication and Division
10.1.4 Binary Gray Codes
10.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)
10.1.6 ASCII (Askey) Code
10.2 Logic and Boolean Algebra
10.2.1 Sets Operations of Sets
10.2.2 Logic Correspondence Between Sets and Logic
10.2.3 Boolean Algebra Sum and Product Forms
10.3 Combinational Logic Circuits
10.3.1 Logic Gates
10.3.2 IC Logic Families
10.3.3 Design of Logic Circuits Multiplexer Circuit Adder Circuits
10.3.4 Active-Low Signals
10.3.5 Minimal Realization Karnaugh Map Method
10.4 Sequential Logic Devices
10.4.1 RS Flip-Flop
10.4.2 Latch
10.4.3 JK Flip-Flop
10.4.4 D Flip-Flop Shift Register
10.4.5 T Flip-Flop and Counters
10.4.6 Schmitt Trigger
10.5 Practical Considerations of IC Chips
10.5.1 IC Chip Production
10.5.2 Chip Packaging
10.5.3 Applications
10.6 Problems
Microprocessors and PLCs
11.1 Digital Computer
11.1.1 Microcomputer Organization Operation
11.1.2 Microprocessor
11.1.3 Memory Physical Form of Memory
11.3.1 Buses and Local Area Networks
11.3.2 Data Acquisition
11.3.3 Communication Networks Protocols
11.3.4 Networked Plant Fieldbus
11.3.5 A Networked Application Network Infrastructure
11.4 Problems
Control Systems
12.1 Control Engineering
12.1.1 Control System Architectures Feedforward Control Terminology
12.1.2 Instrumentation and Design
12.1.3 History of Control Engineering
12.2 Control System Performance
12.2.1 Performance Specification in Time-Domain
12.2.2 Simple Oscillator
12.3 Control Schemes
12.3.1 Integral Control and Steady State Error
12.3.2 Final Value Theorem
12.3.3 Manual Reset
12.3.4 Automatic Reset (Integral Control) Reset Windup
12.3.5 System Type and Error Constants Definition of System Type
12.3.6 Error Constants Position Error Constant Kp Velocity Error Constant Kυ Acceleration Error Constant Ka
12.3.7 System Type as a Robustness Property
12.3.8 Performance Specification Using S Plane
12.3.9 Control System Sensitivity
12.4 Stability and Routh-Hurwitz Criterion
12.4.1 Natural Response
12.4.2 Routh-Hurwitz Criterion Routh Array Auxiliary Equation Zero Coefficient Problem
12.4.3 Relative Stability
12.5 Root Locus Method
12.5.1 Rules for Plotting Root Locus Complex Numbers Root Locus Rules Explanation of the Rules Steps of Sketching Root Locus
12.6 Frequency Domain Analysis
12.6.1 Response to a Harmonic Input
12.6.2 Marginal Stability The 1,0 Condition
12.6.3 Bode Diagram
12.6.4 Phase and Gain Margins Gain Margin Phase Margin
12.6.5 Nyquist Plot
12.6.6 Slope Relationship for Bode Magnitude Curve
12.6.7 Nyquist Stability Criterion
12.7 Controller Design
12.7.1 Design Specifications
12.7.2 Conventional Time-Domain Design Proportional Plus Derivative Controller Design
12.8 Compensator Design in the Frequency Domain
12.8.1 Lead Compensation Design Steps for a Lead Compensator
12.8.2 Lag Compensation Design Steps for a Lag Compensator
12.8.3 Design Specifications in Compensator Design
12.8.4 Destabilizing Effect of Time Delays
12.9 Controller Tuning
12.9.1 Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Reaction Curve Method Ultimate Response Method
12.10 Design Using Root Locus
12.10.1 Design Steps
12.10.2 Lead Compensation
12.10.3 Lag Compensation
12.12 Problems
Case Studies in Mechatronics
13.1 Design of a Mechatronic System
13.1.1 Intelligent Mechatronic Devices Hierarchical Architecture Blackboard Architecture Technology Needs
13.1.2 General Design Procedure Development of an IMS
13.2 Robotics Case Study
13.2.1 General Considerations Economic Analysis
13.2.2 Robot Selection Commercial Robots Robotic Workcells
13.2.3 Robot Design and Development Prototype Robot Robot Design Actuator Selection/Sizing Final Design Amplifiers and Power Supplies Control System
13.3 Iron Butcher Case Study
13.3.1 Technology Needs
13.3.2 Machine Features
13.3.3 Hardware Development Conveyor System Cutter Assembly and Actuators Motion Sensors Position Controllers and Interfacing Hardware
13.3.4 Image Processing for Cutter Positioning
13.3.5 Supervisory Control System Image Preprocessing Servomotor Response Preprocessing Cutter Load Preprocessing Conveyor Speed Preprocessing Servo Tuning Product Quality Assessment Machine Tuning System Modules User Interface of the Machine Machine Tuning Example
13.3.6 Economic Analysis
13.4 Projects
Transform Techniques
A.1 Laplace Transform
A.1.1 Laplace Transforms of Some Common Functions
A.1.1.1 Laplace Transform of a Constant
A.1.1.2 Laplace Transform of the Exponential
A.1.1.3 Laplace Transform of Sine and Cosine
A.1.1.4 Transform of a Derivative
A.1.2 Table of Laplace Transforms
A.2 Response Analysis
A.3 Transf fer Function
A.4.1 Frequency-Response Function (Frequency Transfer Function)
A.5.1 An Interpretation of Laplace and Fourier Transforms
A.5.2 Application in Circuit Analysis
Software Tools
B.1 Simulink
B.1.1 Starting Simulink
B.1.2 Basic Elements
B.1.2.2 Lines
B.1.3 Building an Application
B.1.4 Running a Simulation
B.1.4.1 General Tips
B.2 Stateflow
B.2.1 Create a Simulink Model
B.2.2 Create a Stateflow Diagram
B.2.3 Define Input Events
B.2.4 Define Input Data
B.2.5 Define the Stateflow Interface
B.2.6 Define Simulink Parameters
B.2.7 Parse the Stateflow Diagram
B.2.8 Run a Simulation
B.3.1 Computations
B.3.2 Arithmetic
B.3.3 Arrays
B.3.4 Relational and Logical Operations
B.3.5 Linear Algebra
B.3.6 M-Files
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