JOINTS AND JOINT TISSUE
They do not have synovial cavity. Two bones remain held together by thin layer of fibrous tissue or densefibrous tissue or cement or sutures.(i)
– (Suture during infancy but fusion afterwards as in Frontal bone). Bones are thinand plate like, held together by inter digitations. e.g., skull bones.(ii)
One bone remains embedded in the socket of other attached through fibres or cement layer.e.g., Thecodont teeth of humans.(iii)
One bone fits into slit of other. e.g., ethmoid bone into vomer.(iv)
Two bones are united by dense fibrous tissue. e.g., joint between skull bones and bones of upper jaw, distal ends of tibia and fibula.
No synovial cavity, articulating bones are united by cartilage.(i)
Connecting material is hyaline cartilage. e.g., temporary joint between diaphysis andepiphysis of a long bone and permanent joint between true ribs and sternum.(ii)
Connecting material is broad flat disc of fibrocartilage. e.g., Intervertebral disc andsymphysis pubis.
, freely movable and most common type of joints. They allow free movement inone or more directions. There is no direct contact between two bones, end is covered with hyaline cartilagecap (
) and the whole structure is covered with ligament. The synovial cavity between twobones is lined with
and is filled with
secreted by this membrane.Synovial fluid acts as lubricant and shock absorber and also provides nourishment to articular cartilage.
Inold age stiffness of joints occur due to decrease in synovial fluid and erosion of cartilaginious part
.Synovial membrane is composed of loose connective tissue with elastic fibres and a variable amount of adipose tissue. Synovial fluid also contains phagocytic cells and removes microbes and debris resulting fromwear and tear of joints. It also contains
Hyaluronic acid and interstitial fluid formed
from blood plasmaand is similar in appearance, consistency to uncooked egg white. When there is no movement, the fluid isquite viscous, but as movement increases, fluid becomes less viscous.
Amount of synovial fluid varies indifferent joints of body, ranging from a thin viscous layer to about 3.5
ml of free fluid in large joint suchas knee. It also removes metabolic wastes from the joint.
is examination of interior of a joint,usually knee by an arthroscope.