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JOINTS AND JOINT TISSUE

JOINTS AND JOINT TISSUE

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Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 16, 2009
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10/09/2010

 
 
JOINTS AND JOINT TISSUE
JOINTS
Fibrous Joints
They do not have synovial cavity. Two bones remain held together by thin layer of fibrous tissue or densefibrous tissue or cement or sutures.(i)
Sutures Synostoses
– (Suture during infancy but fusion afterwards as in Frontal bone). Bones are thinand plate like, held together by inter digitations. e.g., skull bones.(ii)
Gomphosis
One bone remains embedded in the socket of other attached through fibres or cement layer.e.g., Thecodont teeth of humans.(iii)
Shindylases
One bone fits into slit of other. e.g., ethmoid bone into vomer.(iv)
Syndesmosis
Two bones are united by dense fibrous tissue. e.g., joint between skull bones and bones of upper jaw, distal ends of tibia and fibula.
Cartilaginous Joints
No synovial cavity, articulating bones are united by cartilage.(i)
Synchondrosis
Connecting material is hyaline cartilage. e.g., temporary joint between diaphysis andepiphysis of a long bone and permanent joint between true ribs and sternum.(ii)
Symphysis
Connecting material is broad flat disc of fibrocartilage. e.g., Intervertebral disc andsymphysis pubis.
Synovial Joints
Are the
Most perfect
, freely movable and most common type of joints. They allow free movement inone or more directions. There is no direct contact between two bones, end is covered with hyaline cartilagecap (
articular cartilage
) and the whole structure is covered with ligament. The synovial cavity between twobones is lined with
synovial membrane
and is filled with
synovial fluid
secreted by this membrane.Synovial fluid acts as lubricant and shock absorber and also provides nourishment to articular cartilage.
Inold age stiffness of joints occur due to decrease in synovial fluid and erosion of cartilaginious part
.Synovial membrane is composed of loose connective tissue with elastic fibres and a variable amount of adipose tissue. Synovial fluid also contains phagocytic cells and removes microbes and debris resulting fromwear and tear of joints. It also contains
Hyaluronic acid and interstitial fluid formed
from blood plasmaand is similar in appearance, consistency to uncooked egg white. When there is no movement, the fluid isquite viscous, but as movement increases, fluid becomes less viscous.
Amount of synovial fluid varies indifferent joints of body, ranging from a thin viscous layer to about 3.5
ml of free fluid in large joint suchas knee. It also removes metabolic wastes from the joint.
Arthroscopy
is examination of interior of a joint,usually knee by an arthroscope.
 
 
One interesting feature of some synovial joints is their ability to produce a cracking sound when pulled apart.(i)
Articular discs (menisci)
These are pads of fibrocartilage that lie between articular surfaces of somebones. These allow 2 bones of different shapes to fit tightly, these modify the shape of joint surfaces of thearticulating bones. Articular discs help to maintain the stability of joints and direct the flow of synovial fluidto areas of greatest friction.(ii)
Bursae
Sac like structures situated between tendons and bones, muscles and bones, ligaments and bones,skin and bones. Their wall has connective tissue lined by synovial membrane, they are also filled with a fluidsimilar to synovial fluid. Inflammation of Bursa is called
Bursitis
.
Types of Synovial JointsBall & Socket joint
Articulate end of one bone is like a ball whereas other bone end is like a cup shapedsocket. It permits triaxial movements, i.e., movement in three planes. e.g., Acetabulum of pelvic girdles andhead of femur, glenoid cavity of pectoral girdles and head of humerus.
Angular/Condyloic/Ellipsoid joint
Half ball and socket type joint with one biaxial movement in two planes,back and forth and side to side. Oval condyle of one bone fits into elliptical cavity of other bone like joins of phalanges with metacarpals, radius and carpals. (radiocarpal joints)
Gliding/Sliding joint or Arthrodia
Articulating surfaces of bones are usually flat. Only side to side andback and forth movements are permitted. Twisting and rotation are inhibited because ligaments or adjacentbones restrict the range of movement. Since gliding joints do not move around an axis, they are referred to as
Non-axial
. e.g., joints between carpal bones, tarsal bones, sternum and clavicle, scapula and clavicle, pre andpost zygapophysis of vertebrae.
Hinge joint or Ginglymus
Convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface of another bone, movementis primarily in a single plane and the joint is known as
monoaxial/uniaxial
. Motion is similar to that of ahinged door. e.g., elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joint.
Saddle/Sellaris joint
Articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped and that of other bone is shaped like arider sitting in a saddle. It is a modified ellipsoidal joint in which movement is somewhat freer (biaxial). e.g., joint between trapezium of carpus and metacarpals of thumb (carpometacarpal joint).
 
 
Pivolt joint/Rotatorial/Trochoid
A rounded, pointed or conical surface of one bone articulates within a ringformed partly by another bone and partly by ligament. Primary movement permitted is rotation and the jointis
Monoaxial
. e.g., joint between atlas, and axis, and between proximal ends of radius and ulna (Atlantoaxialand Radioulnar joint).
Different types of joints

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