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Negri - On Gilles Deleuze

Negri - On Gilles Deleuze

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Published by Windu W. Jusuf
Negri - On Gilles Deleuze
Negri - On Gilles Deleuze

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Published by: Windu W. Jusuf on Feb 07, 2013
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75
ON
GILLES
DELEUZE
&
FELIX
GUATTARI,
A
THOUSANDPLATEAUS
AntonioNegri,
translated
by
Charles
T.
Wolfe
Source:
GraduateFacultyPhilosophyJournal
\
8(
I)
(1995):93-109
I
It
is
in
Sein
und
Zeit
thatHeideggerdecreestheend
of
the
Geisteswis-senschaften
andtheirtradition(Enlightenment
and
Hegelianism),when,ashe
is
commenting
on
the
Briefwechsel
[exchange
of
letters]betweenDilthey
and
YorckvonWartenburg,hepayshomage
to
thelatterfor"hisfullunderstanding
of
thefundamentalcharacter
of
historyasvirtuality[
...
][which
he]
owestohisknowledge
of
thecharacter
of
being
of
humanDaseinitself."Consequently,Heideggercontinues,"theinterest
of
understandinghistoricality"
is
confrontedwiththetask
of
anelaboration
of
the"genericdifferencebetweentheonticandthehistorical."Buthemust
part
wayswithYorckwhenthelatter,afterhavingclearlyestablishedthatdifference,movesfromvirtualitytomysticism.
If,
ontheotherhand,onceseparatedfromtheontic,
"the
question
of
historicalityshowsitselftobeanontologicalquestionwhichinquiresintotheconstitution
of
being
of
historicalbeing",it
is
onceagaintowardsDiltheythatonemustturn,inspite
of
hisconfusedvitalism.
I
Heideggereffectstwooperationsatonce.Ontheonehand,heexpelsthe
Geisteswissenschaften
fromthepositiontheyoccupiedattheheart
of
metaphysics,astheinheritors
of
theEnlightenmentandtheoutcome
of
Hegelianism.Ontheotherhand,hebringstofulfillmentthecriticallaborwhichhadpreciselyshownitsvalueinDilthey'shistoricism(inspite
of
thelimitsthatYorckhadpointed
out)-acritical
laborwhichdevelopsthesearchforthemeaning
of
historicityandallowsonetomovefromthetheory
of
objectivitytothat
of
expression,fromtheacknowledgement
of
historiography
in
thecontext
of
thecritique
of
cognition
to
itsdefinitionattheheart
of
the
1182
 
ON
GILLESDELEUZE
&
FELIXGUATTARI
transcendentalschematism.Historicity
is
thenpositedasanontologicaldimension
and
leavesonlyitsonticresidueforhistoriography.2
It
is
interestingtonotethathereHeideggerbreaks(andthisphenomenonreoccursofteninhim)"withambiguity"the"destinal"rhythm
of
hiscritique
of
themodern,whileheparadoxicallydraws
an
"other"meaningfrom
it-which
refersback
to
thatothervision
of
modernitywhich,fromMachiavel1itoSpinoza
and
Nietzsche,hadunderstoodhistoricityasabsolutevirtuality,
and
beingasthepower
of
Being-there.Machiavelli's
virtus
dwellsprecisely
in
thatdimension.Butit
is
aboveallinSpinoza's
TractatusTheologico-Politicus
thatthemeaning
of
historywasviewedastherealization
of
afaculty:imagination.Bornfromtheconfusion
of
thefirsttype
of
cognition,it
is
dissolved
in
acreativemanner
in
thesecondtype,
and
introducestheabsolutepotentiality
of
theethicalconstruction
of
being.
It
is
thatdrive
of
beingastheopening
of
historicity,thatabsolutelyimmanentdefinition
of
ameaning
of
history,thatHeideggertookover
and
sethere"withambiguity".Nietzschehadgraspedwithoutanyambiguitythisfundamentalcriticalpointwhichatoncedigsthegrave
of
historicisms
and
demandstheopening
of
historicity,bymakingittheheart
of
atheory
of
untimely,virtual,creativebeing.
3
Theself-overcoming
of
timeitselfisinactionhere:it
is
arelationtohistorywhichconsists
in
aredemption,notasworship
of
thepastbutasawarenessthatonlythetensionbetweenpresent
and
future
is
afabric
of
thepossible,apower
of
ontologicaldecision.ThusspokeZarathustra:[T]odeliverthedead
and
recreateevery"itwas"intoa
"1
willeditthus",onlythatcould,for
me,
becalledredemption.Will,suchisthename
of
theliberator
and
of
thatwhichbringsjoy;that
is
what[havetaughtyou,
my
friends.Butlearnalso
this:
thatthewillitself
is
aprisoner.To
will
is
tofree:butwhat
is
thename
of
thatwhichputstheliberatorhimself
in
irons?
"It
was",there
is
thename
of
thewill'sgnashing
of
teethanditsmostsolitaryaffliction.Powerlesswithregardtoallthattookplace,itcontemplatesthepastfull
of
anger.The
will
cannot
will
backwards:thatitcannotbreaktime
and
theavidity
of
time,there
is
themostsecretaffliction
of
the
will
[
..
.].
That
timedoesnotgobackwards,there
is
whatirritatesit;
"it
was",such
is
thename
of
thestoneitcouldnotroll.
4
It
is
that"couldroll"whichcontainsall
of
themeaning
of
historicity.ButletusreturntoDilthey.
It
is
indeedinhisworkthatthetensionsbetweenhistoricalresearch
and
therequirement
of
arenewal
of
thequestioning
of
themeaning
of
historicityaremostfullyarticulated.
It
is
especiallyinhisworkthatthelabor
of
historicalunderstandingseekstoidentifyitsconstitutiveterrainwhich,roughlyspeaking,hesometimesdefinesasphilosophy
of
life,comprehensivepsychology,etc.Obsessedwiththe
1183
 
DELEUZE
AND
GUATTARI
problem
of
historicalsubjectivity,Dilthey,duringthewhole
of
hisresearch,makestheinventory
of
all
of
thepossibleformsinwhichhistoricalsciencecanopenitselfuptohistoricity,sotospeak.Fromthepositivistpositions
of
his"InauguralLesson",which
is
extremelycritical
of
the"castrated"character
of
historicalobjectivity,tothesharpconsciousness
in
ErlebnisundDichtung
of
thefactthat"history
is
nowaysusceptible
of
constitutingthesupremefulfilledscience,capable
of
accountingforagivenset
of
phenomenafromconcomitantcauses,even
if
oneweretograntitamaximumdegree
of
scientificity";fromtheKantianwork
of
the
Einleitung
in
dieGeisteswis-senschajien,
heldbetweentheaffirmation
of
theself("theissuehenceforth
is
to
perceive,withoutlettingoneselfbeby
bound
by
prejudices,thereality
of
innerlife,and,startingfromthatreality,todeterminewhatnature
and
historyare
in
relationtothatinnerlife")
and
aconception
of
thesameselfwhichhenceforth
is
segmented,fractal,
and
diffused("thesingularindividualistheconnectionpoint
of
aplurality
of
systems"),totheconstruction
of
historicaltypologies,asamethodologicalproposal
of
graspinguniversality
and
singularityatonce;fromthereturntopsychologyintheIdeenwhichaimsatgivingadynamic
and
productiveconsistencytothehistoricalsubject,
and
atdiscoveringthereinthepower
of
Erlebnis
(asbothvitalityandconnection,asexpression
and
objectivedetermination),totheultimatevitalistpositions
in
whichthepsychologicalcoreopensitselfup
to
theexpressivefunction
and
determinesitself
in
apresencewhichconstitutesitsethicalopening:well,duringthewhole
of
thisinventory,the
Geisteswissenschajien
arealwaysconceivedof,whateverthecasemaybe,ascrises,
and
all
of
thecriticalpathwaysareopeneduptotheproblematic
of
ahistoricitywhichhas
not
yetbeenabletodefineitself.
That
indecisiveness
of
Dilthey,
that
way
of
makinghimselfapsychologist
or
philosopher
of
life,whichalwaysliftshimbeyondanyphilosophicalposition
he
takes,illuminatestheintensity
of
theontologicalfraying-throughthatheeffects,whichleads
us
totheverge
of
thediscovery
of
anewmeaning
of
historicity.
5
Why
is
thisDiltheyianproceduresoimportant?BecausewhileheanticipatesHeidegger'sconclusions,healsoexploresentirelyotherpaths,
and
it
is
onlybyrefining
and
lettingthedustsettleontheseoperationsthattheHeideggerianontologicaldecision,themeaning
of
historicityasvirtuality,takeonall
of
theirmeaning."To
putour
will
to
truth
intoquestion;togivebackitsevent-likecharactertodiscourse;toremove,lastly,thesovereignty
of
thesignifier."WhenFoucaultannouncesthisprograminhis"InauguralLecture",hetoofindshimselfatthelimit
of
thecritique
of
historiographyand
of
the
Geisteswis-senschaften
ingeneral;hetooexpressestheopening
onto
thevirtuality
of
,history,whichwasconstitutedasaphilosophicalawarenessbetweenDilthey
and
Heidegger.
And
Foucault,justlikeDilthey,hadgonethroughsomeextremelyambiguousphasesduringthecourse
of
hisscientificexperience.Fromhisearlystudies
of
LudwigBinswangertothose
of
Weizsacker,
and
1184

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