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Published by Simon Wickham-Smith
Biographical essay on Mongolian poets D.Nyamsüren (1949-2002), G.Mend-Ooyo (b1952) and O.Dashbalbar (1957-1999), including information on the influential Gal (Fire) group, current during the late 1970s and early 1980s. (Translation by Simon Wickhamsmith).
Biographical essay on Mongolian poets D.Nyamsüren (1949-2002), G.Mend-Ooyo (b1952) and O.Dashbalbar (1957-1999), including information on the influential Gal (Fire) group, current during the late 1970s and early 1980s. (Translation by Simon Wickhamsmith).

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Simon Wickham-Smith on Feb 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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What is the symbolism of Orion’s three hinds together in the sky?
From the 1970s until the 1980s, the “Gal” group
, whose works came together ina single confluence, organised around the so-called Dariganga Three. The “Gal”group was a central group, the central group was a stream, and this stream wasthe independent flow of literary writing called “GUNU”
, and this group of writersin the 1980s nowadays exercises the greatest influence on Mongolian literature.“Gal” was primarily made up of the writers Gombojavin Mend-Ooyo, OchirbatinDashbalbar and Danzangiin Nyamsüren, although there were other writers, poetsand critics also involved, such as Dagvadorjiin Tsogt, Bat-Ochirin Sundui,Yadambatin Baatar, Shagdarsürengiin Gürbazar, Lamjavin Myagmarsüren,Jümpüreliin Saruulbuyan, Jamsrandorjiin Oyuuntsetseg, Tseveendorjiin Oidovand Ürjingiin Hürelbaatar, and today it retains a loose structure. These names, Ithink, can show the type of connection which existed during the 1980s amongMongolian writers.We altered the course of the literature which had existed beneath the hardhelmet of ideology and, in order to reach new levels of skill and intellectualthought, we banded together and supported each other, one person filling in for anothers deficiencies, and we aimed to initiate a wholly new approach for awholly new era. Looking down from the heights we have now reached, we canconclude that history played a rôle in the realisation of these noble aims of “Gal.”In this, Dariganga’s Poetic Triad – Mend-Ooyo, Dashbalbar and Nyamsüren –formed a single harmnizing body, that theirs was a particular rôle, of a trio actingas the woven girth-strap of Dariganga’s poetry. In this way, Nyamsürenaddressed our question – “What is the symbolism of Orion’s three hinds together in the sky” – and he appears to have explained this triplicity, their reactivecharacters, through the following three solutions.
Homeland or, The Laws of Attraction
The special connection, the golden tether, between Mend-Ooyo, Dashbalbar andNyamsüren was that they were from the same homeland. In fact, the particular image, the special link they shared, was that they all breathed the air of Sühbaatar aimag. And in the breathing of this air was wellspring, the creativeflow which brought forth the life of Dariganga’s Poetic Triad. Indeed, thiswellspring, which bubbled up like Dariganga’s own Orgih Spring, turned the hillsand the rivers in Sühbaatar’s Ongon, Naranbulag and Asgat areas
upside down,and this flow of wisdom fermented away like the local yogurt. Not only we, butMongolian literature also, know better than even they the sandy hills of thestanding springs in Ongon, and Sunspring in Naranbulag, Dari Hill and Ganga
means “fire” in Mongolian.
GUNU was named after the book
Gol Us namuuhan Ursana
The River FlowsGently 
) bu O.Dashbalbar.
The areas in which the three poets had been born.
Lake, and this special place of genius has been described as “the nation’screative storehouse.” We grown up with them, from a very young age we hadplayed around them and it is most definitely the homeland, or the law of attraction, in which is found the similarity between the area’s shamanic natureand the intellectual artistic nature of these three poets.During the 1970s, Mend-Ooyo had been a student at Ulaanbaatar College, andhad moved to the city with his wife and children, and their address became theUlaanbaatar address of both Dashbalbar and Nyamsüren. In the legendary Apartment Block 10, called the Yellow Weave, in his in-laws’ small and poorly-heated apartment, the Sühbaatar aimag’s Ulaanbaatar literary study group met,in the guise of a local workshop for the discussion of literature. Mend-Ooyo, weall were well-aware, was a student at this time, and was very far from his home.Later on, they all became famous, Nyamsüren became the Great Eastern Poet,Dashbalbar became the famous winner of the State Prize and a publisher, and Iclearly recall them, carefully and shyly, beginning to write a few poems inrectangular, lined notebooks. They knocked gently at Mend-Ooyo’s door andentered the house of Mongolian literature.Homeland is one important influence which links their lives. Fate is also anaspect which brings them together. In this regard, the junior school teacher wholed Dashbalbar onto the path of study was Nyamsüren, and it is agreed that itwas this first pupil who guided his teacher into Mongolian literature. It is clear that this space of attraction is the solution for the magnetism which existedbetween Mend-Ooyo, Dashbalbar and Nyamsüren. Its expression is homeland.The idea of Dariganga’s Poetic Triad was first proposed by the literary scholar Ya.Ganbaatar, who took it from Nyamsüren’s poem “I hear the white conchsounding in the winter streams.” The quality of this poetic triad, then, one answer to Nyamsüren’s question “What is the symbolism of Orion’s three hindstogether in the sky?” – is homeland, or the laws of attraction.
Generation, or the Poets of the 1980sMend-Ooyo and Nyamsüre are called a trio.What is the symbolism of Orion’s three hinds together in the sky?
From beyond the years, Danzangiin Nyamsüren’s works magically forge another answer to his question, we seem bound to study a notch of time, a period duringthe 1980s.The poets of the 1980s were the ones who revived twentieth century Mongolianliterature and had tasted the best of the early 1960s, they lit the intellectual firesof the democratic revolution of the 1990s. That is to say, the realist literaturewhich had begun during the 1920s took up its magic power and, at a singlestroke, unified eastern tradition and western education. Just as these people hadinherited these interesting times, our recent generation had in everything, andwith a somewhat scanty fate, initially embraced and subsequently cradled andraised in its literature the breath of this new democratic generation which wasdeveloping in the world. This being so, during the 1980s, the young generation
who published literature and who promoted the influence of the new era wasvisited by a special and most interesting destiny, a directive which led into theflow of the world many ideas of social organisation.In other words, Dariganga’s Poetic Triad was realising the burden of history.Thus it was that Ochirbatin Dashbalbar took this at face value and his writingswere collected together in publications such as
Eternal Creation on the Edge of Extinction
The Error of Stepping Upon the Dharma
, and he was elected tohigh office as a member of the Great Hural, where he spoke passionately for social justice on behalf od simple people.Mend-Ooyo, on the other hand, has avoided the red flames of the political fire,and has resolutely worked to soften and purify the mind of society with hiscreative work. In this way, during the period when political song was in fashion,he wrote songs such as “Mother Earth” and “The World of Mother’s Lullabies”and “Come to Our Home.” During the 1980s, he used his creativity to turn theartistic focus towards the Mongol character, the human condition and theprotection of the environment. Thirty years later, the Mongolian people havebegun to proclaim how they have come to understand the pure ideas of theseworks. Misunderstood for many decades, he is a melancholy example of someone who has carried with him the idea that creativity should concern itself with society.Danzangiin Nyamsüren welcomed the 1990s as a representative of the 1980squite different from the other two. As people headed towards the urban centers,he strove to move away. As people shifted nomadically towards the towns, hemade a little nomadic shift further into the countryside. As people wrote politicaland ideological poetry, he began to write about the old grasses, about theantelope, about the leaves of wolfsbane. On the lonely steppe, at the temple of Ereentsav, he found his pure voice and welcomed the democratic revolution.Nyamsüren then hardened the fine point of 1980s creativity and drew themandala anew for meditation.So Dariganga’s Poetic Triad were the key representatives for the 1980s, as theygalloped forward in one direction, with their manes and tails raised, like a trio of horses, keeping each other sharp and renewed. There was Dashbalbar’s imageas a fiery poetic warrior, Mend-Ooyo’s gathering strength through spirituality,and Nyamsüren’s dwelling upon the Buddha’s holy earth. During their owngeneration of the 198s, they had established an inheritance of literary researchwhich safely cradled and brought forth the 1990s. So one reason for Orion’sthree hinds being together in the sky is that they will release the generationswhich will follow them.
The Literary Life, or What Was, or Was Not, to be Repaired 
While Dariganga’s Poetic Triad loves like life the generation which oxidises itsown works, they give special attention to their own work. From one point of view,they struggled to discover their own practise and character. In this regard, asthey honored freedom in creativity, they studied difference, what makes particular styles of thinking special. At first, they created and wrote and studied the writer’slife, they critically and devotedly dealt with each other’s works. They themselves

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